## Topics Covered

Representative descriptions of each of the content areas covered by the test are provided below. Within each content area, the approximate percentage of examination questions is shown for each topic.

Current section: II. Mathematics

### II. Mathematics

- Mathematical Processes
- Understands mathematical processes (e.g., representation, problem solving, making connections)

- Number Sense and Numeration (40%)
- Understands prenumeration concepts (e.g., informal counting, meaning of number, patterns)
- Understands basic number systems (e.g., whole numbers, integers, fractions, decimals)
- Understands basic four operations (e.g., addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) and their properties (e.g., commutativity, order of operations)
- Understands basic concepts of number theory (e.g., factors, multiples, prime and composite)
- Understands how to solve problems (e.g., modeling, estimation, algorithms) and recognize the reasonableness of results
- Understands how to make, describe, and explore numerical patterns and engage in mathematical investigations

- Algebraic Concepts (25%)
- Understands basic algebraic methods and representations
- Understands the associative, commutative, and distributive properties
- Understands additive and multiplicative inverses
- Understands the special properties of zero and one
- Understands equalities and inequalities
- Understands the appropriate application of formulas

- Informal Geometry and Measurement (20%)
- Understands properties of fi gures and relationships in two- and three-dimensional objects
- Understands transformations (e.g., slides, fl ips, and turns), geometric models, and nets
- Understands nonstandard, customary, and metric units of measurement (e.g., length, time, temperature)

- Data Organization and Interpretation (15%)
- Understands visual displays of quantitative information (e.g., bar graphs, pie charts, line graphs)
- Understands simple probability and intuitive concepts of chance (e.g., flipping a coin, spinning a spinner, rolling a number cube)
- Understands fundamental counting techniques (e.g., permutations, combinations, tree diagrams)
- Understands basic descriptive statistics (e.g., mean, median, and mode)