E T S Praxis Series

Social Studies: Content Knowledge (0081)

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  1. The correct answer is A. The Emancipation Proclamation freed only those slaves who were living in the states or parts of states still in rebellion. Lincoln feared that complete emancipation would cost the Union the loyalty of the border states (Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware), slave states that remained loyal to the Union. Moreover, President Abraham Lincoln did not believe he had the constitutional authority to declare free those slaves living in areas loyal to the Union.

  2. The correct answer is B. There was no declaration of war by Congress. However, Congress did pass the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which authorized the president to "take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression."

  3. The correct answer is C. At the time of the Crusades, when contact increased between Europe and the Islamic world, Islamic mathematicians were using sophisticated mathematical tools and concepts (algebra, zero, Arabic numerals) that were unfamiliar to Europeans. In the twelfth century, European scholars became more aware of and interested in the contributions of Islamic mathematicians, and they made this knowledge available to the West in Latin translations.

  4. The correct answer is C. The term "Cold War" is used to describe the tense relationship that developed between the United States and the Soviet Union in the years immediately following the Second World War. During the Cold War, both the United States and the Soviet Union sought to extend their economic, diplomatic, and, at times, military influence in many parts of the world. Beginning in the late 1980's, dramatic changes in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe led to a reduction in U.S.–Soviet tension and the end of the Cold War.

  5. The correct answer is A. Hobbes and Locke both agreed that government authority was established through a social contract, although their views of the nature of that authority differed.

  6. The correct answer is D. A concurrent power is a power shared by the federal government and state governments. Both the federal and state governments have the power to levy taxes. The powers described in choices A, B, and C are reserved to the federal government alone.

  7. The correct answer is B. Erikson stated that an adolescent needs to integrate previous experiences in order to develop a sense of "ego identity."

  8. The correct answer is C. The map shows that the greatest amount of precipitation (1,500 millimeters on average) is in southeast China, compared to other areas that receive far less precipitation (less than 500 millimeters on average).

  9. The correct answer is B. A progressive tax rate is one in which the tax rate increases as income rises. In this example, someone earning $25,000 a year is taxed at a higher rate than someone earning a lower income; thus, the tax rate is progressive.

  10. The correct answer is A. City civilizations developed early along the Nile River, the Sindhu (Indus) River, and the Yangtze, but not along the Amazon.

  11. The correct answer is A. Appreciation in the value of the dollar results in a decline in the relative cost of importing foreign goods. An importer of foreign goods would thus benefit. U.S. goods would be relatively more expensive, so choices B and D are incorrect. C is also incorrect; a change in the value of the dollar would have no beneficial effect on a worker in the U.S. beer industry.

  12. The correct answer is B. In stages I and III, birth and death rates are approximately equal. Therefore, the rate of natural increase (population growth) would be quite low, even in the first stage in which the birth rate is high. In stage II, a decline in the death rate precedes a decline in the birth rate. It is in this middle stage that rapid and dramatic population growth would occur.

  13. The correct answer is A. If the real interest rate (that is, the interest rate adjusted for inflation) increases in the United States, foreign investors will transfer money to the United States in order to get a better return on investment. As a result, the dollar will increase in value relative to other currencies. The increase in the value of the dollar will in turn make imports to the United States cheaper, and consumers and businesses in the United States will therefore buy more imported goods.

  14. The correct answer is B. Operant conditioning involves the use of reinforcement to increase or decrease the frequency or intensity of a behavior. So, for example, a reward provided for on-task behavior might increase the frequency of this behavior. Operant conditioning is involved in creating behavior, not evaluating it, so A and C are incorrect. Also, because anterograde amnesia is caused by an organic process, such as disease or injury, operant conditioning cannot prevent it.

  15. The correct answer is C. The United States government in the 1960s set the "poverty line" as an absolute -- the threshold below which families or individuals are considered to be lacking the resources to meet the basic needs for healthy living; having insufficient income to provide the food, shelter, and clothing needed to preserve health. The measure hasn’t changed much since then, with the exception of periodic adjustment for inflation, using the consumer price index.

  16. The correct answer is A. The opportunity cost of typing one page of the report is calculated as the reduction in the number of sandwiches divided by the gain in number of pages typed. Therefore, the opportunity cost of typing a page is 10/5 = 2 sandwiches.

  17. The correct answer is C. One of the reasons for understating the true unemployment level is that the official measure excludes discouraged workers, people who, after a long search, give up looking for jobs. These people are still unemployed, but they are not counted when calculating the unemployment rate. A and B are incorrect since both new entrants and laid-off workers looking for new jobs are classified as unemployed. D is incorrect since full-time students are not part of the labor force.

  18. The correct answer is B. Innovations in communication and transportation systems have made it possible for corporations to move labor-intensive manufacturing activities to peripheral countries where labor is cheap, tax rates are low, and there are few regulations. Primary economic activity, A, refers to extractive industries such as mining. Intervening opportunity, C, is not correct, because the concept relates to the attractiveness of a near site for an activity that diminishes the prospects of a site farther away. Although the global-local continuum is the idea that the world in comprised of interconnected series of relationships across space, D is not correct, because the concept primarily refers to the direct effect that events at the global level have at the local level.

  19. The correct answer is A. Stimulus diffusion is a type of diffusion in which the concept is taken and applied to an established way of life. Thus, the activity of "herding" that developed first with cattle was transferred to the Sami who applied herding to their native reindeer, animals of the North. Cattle would not survive the environment of the Sami, but the concept of herding was definitely useful.

  20. The correct answer is A. A grant-in-aid is money coming from central government for a specific project. This kind of funding is used when the government and the Congress have decided that the recipient should be publicly funded but operate with reasonable independence from the federal government. This is a clear way to exercise influence over the policies of state governments. The line-item veto pertains to the power of an executive (the president in case of the federal government) to nullify or cancel specific provisions of a bill, usually budget appropriations made by Congress. Executive privilege is the power claimed by the president and other members of the executive branch to resist certain subpoenas and other interventions by the legislative and judicial branches of government. It makes no reference to federal government influence over state governments. And separation of powers is a model for the governance in democratic states, whereby authority is divided into branches or estates, each with separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility.

  21. The correct answer is B. The principle of separation of powers, most clearly spelled out in Article III, Section 1, is intended to render the judiciary free of executive or legislative influence. This life tenure arguably ensures judicial objectivity and impartiality. The other distractors do not work, as judges can be removed by impeachment and conviction by congressional vote; note the use of the term "good behavior." Presidents do have influence over Supreme Court appointments, and federal judges have ample opportunities for advancement through the court system.

  22. The correct answer is D. Political efficacy is defined as a person’s faith in his or her influence on the political process. It is indicative of trust in government and is commonly measured by surveys and used as an indicator for the broader health of civil society. As such efficacy is not about allegiance to a political party or ideology or the lack of such allegience.

  23. The correct answer is A. The direct primary enabled individual voters to get around the system of entrenched party machine politics of the early twentieth century. The direct primary system allowed individual politicians to build power free from the encumbrances that the parties provided. Party organization and party leaders increasingly became less important and marginalized along with party principles and ideologies, as the identity of the candidate became the most visible factor. Voter registrations still tend to draw out ideological affiliation and self-identification as a Democrat or a Republican. Parties, however, have increasingly become less relevant as the ideological space they inhabit shrinks. All this comes at a time when issue-driven political action committees (PACs) and funding sources have continued to proliferate.

  24. The correct answer is B. Emotionalism and a high degree of mass participation were characteristic of the revivals of the Second Great Awakening. In comparison, a meeting of Quakers in the eighteenth century or a presentation to the Chautauqua Assembly or the Women’s Christian Temperance Union were likely to have been more restrained.

  25. The correct answer is C. The construction of the interstate highway system was a major federal initiative of the 1950s, funded by an act of Congress in 1956. The federal government did not spend substantial amounts of money on research related to automobile pollution control, urban mass transit, or a national railroad system during this period.

  26. The correct answer is B. By 1850, the United States had put in place a transportation network based on roads, canals, and steamboats. This network enabled factories and farms to get their goods to market much more efficiently and cheaply. Economic expansion increased the demand for immigrant labor; the plantation economy was also strengthened. The nation did not, however, become an international military power during this period.

  27. The correct answer is D. Confucianism teaches that the duty of mutually appropriate behavior in various interpersonal relationships is central to all human interaction. Relationships within the family, such as parent-child and husband-wife, as well as more general social and political relationships, such as elder-junior and ruler-ruled, all entail an expectation of proper behavior by either side. Just as the harmonious functioning of the family depends on parents treating their children with kindness and children treating parents with filial piety, so the harmonious functioning of the state depends on the ruler treating the subjects with benevolence and the subjects reciprocating by being loyal to the ruler.

  28. The correct answer is A. The map shows that some German states joined the North German Confederation, and others joined the German Empire, on their own accord, while other German states were annexed by Prussia as a result of military victories (in the Prussian-Austrian War of 1866, and in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871). The southern states that joined the Empire in 1871 (Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, and Hesse-Darmstadt) had previously been allies of Austria (in the Prussian-Austrian war of 1866), but that is not reflected in the map.

  29. The correct answer is C. The Russian Grand Prince of Kiev, Vladimir I, converted to Christianity in A.D. 988 and ordered the conversion of his subjects in the Byzantine (Greek Orthodox) rite. The Franks and Vikings were converted by papal emissaries from Rome, and the Anglo-Saxons were converted in part by Celtic Irish and Scottish missionaries and in part by Augustine of Canterbury, a missionary appointed by Pope Gregory the Great.