E T S Praxis Series

Social Studies: Content Knowledge (0081)

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Sample Test Questions

Current section: Multiple Choice > Questions

The sample questions that follow illustrate the types of questions in the test. They are not, however, representative of the entire scope of the test in either content or difficulty. Answers with explanations follow the questions.

Directions:  Each of the questions or statements below is followed by four suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case.

  1. President Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation declared free only those slaves who

    1. were living in the areas still in rebellion
    2. were serving in the Union armies
    3. were living in the border states
    4. had escaped to Northern states
  2. The legal basis for the escalation of United States involvement in the Vietnam War was the

    1. declaration of war by Congress
    2. passage of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution by Congress
    3. United Nations resolution condemning the North Vietnamese invasion of South Vietnam
    4. mutual defense provisions of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
  3. In which of the following fields did Islamic civilization most influence Europeans at the time of the Crusades?

    1. Music
    2. Theology
    3. Mathematics
    4. Law
  4. The term "Cold War" refers to the

    1. race between the United States and the Soviet Union to claim ownership of Antarctica
    2. contest between the United States and the European Union for economic domination in the West
    3. struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union to gain political hegemony in world affairs
    4. competition between the Soviet Union and China for the resources of the Pacific Rim
  5. With which of the following statements would both Thomas Hobbes and John Locke most probably have agreed?

    1. Government authority is created as the result of a social contract.
    2. Government must enforce religious law to prevent moral decay.
    3. Government must enforce the majority's will regardless of the wishes of the minority.
    4. Government must bend to the will of the educated minority.
  6. Which of the following is an example of a concurrent power?

    1. The printing and coining of money
    2. The power to declare war
    3. The process of naturalization
    4. The levying of taxes
  7. According to Erik Erikson, the primary dilemma faced in adolescence is

    1. industry v. inferiority
    2. identity v. identity confusion
    3. generativity v. stagnation
    4. integrity v. despair

  8. A map of China shows areas of average annual precipitation in the country. It shows 3 areas of precipitation of 500, 100, and 100 milliliters in the northwestern part of the country; 2 areas of precipitation of 500 and 1,000 milliliters in the northeastern part of the country; 2 areas of precipitation of 500 milliliters in the central part of the county; and 13 areas of precipitation of 1,000 and 1,500 milliliters across the southeastern part of the country.

    The map above shows which of the following to be true about precipitation in China?

    1. The north receives more precipitation than the south.
    2. The driest region is the northeast.
    3. The southeast receives the most precipitation.
    4. The west receives more precipitation than the east.
  9. If the tax rate for a single person with $25,000 in taxable income is 24 percent, and the tax rate for a single person with $20,000 in taxable income is 20 percent, the tax rate over this income range is

    1. regressive
    2. progressive
    3. proportional
    4. revenue-neutral

  10. A world map is labeled one through four in four locations, each of which is near a major river. Label one is in northeastern South America. Label two is in northeastern Africa. Label three is in northern Pakistan. Label four is in eastern China.

    On the map above, which number indicates a region that was NOT a center of early urban civilization?

    1. 1
    2. 2
    3. 3
    4. 4
  11. Which of the following people would benefit most if the value of the United States dollar increased relative to the Japanese yen?

    1. A United States car dealer importing Japanese cars
    2. A Japanese tourist vacationing in the United States
    3. A worker in the United States beer industry
    4. A Japanese baker buying United States wheat

  12. A graph labeled Demographic Transition shows birth and death rates per 1,000 population in stages 1, 2 and 3. The birth rate is flat, and slightly higher than the death rate in stage 1.  It continues to be flat in the first half of stage 2. Then it declines steeply through the second half of stage 2 and flattens out again at a much lower level in stage 3. The death rate is flat in stage 1, drops steeply at the beginning of stage 2 and flattens out about three-quarters of the way through stage 2. It remains flat and slightly below the birth rate through stage 3.

    The graph above indicates that rapid population growth is most likely to occur in

    1. stage I only
    2. stage II only
    3. stages I and III only
    4. stages II and III only
  13. An increase in the real interest rate in the United States relative to its trading partners will most likely result in which of the following?

    1. An increase in United States imports
    2. An increase in United States exports
    3. A decrease in the demand for the United States dollar
    4. A decrease in the United States trade deficit
  14. Operant conditioning would be most useful for

    1. determining whether a toddler is securely attached
    2. increasing on-task behavior in the classroom
    3. measuring a dependent variable
    4. preventing anterograde amnesia
  15. Poverty as defined by the United States government is best understood as

    1. the index value of government services such as Medicaid and public housing
    2. the concept of relative deprivation and based on changes in the distribution of income
    3. an absolute level set in the 1960s and since adjusted to reflect inflation at the consumer level
    4. a concept based on lifestyle and measured on a sliding scale based on the needs of an individual
  16. In one hour, Amanda can type 5 pages of a report or she can make 10 sandwiches. The opportunity cost of typing one page of a report is

    1. 2 sandwiches
    2. 5 sandwiches
    3. 10 sandwiches
    4. 50 sandwiches
  17. Some observers argue that a limitation of the official unemployment rate is that it understates the true unemployment level because it fails to include which of the following?

    1. New entrants to the labor market
    2. People who are laid off and are looking for new jobs
    3. Discouraged people who have given up looking for jobs
    4. Full-time students looking for part-time jobs
  18. The use of inexpensive labor in Asian countries by footwear companies based in the United States and Europe is an example of which of the following?

    1. Primary economic activity
    2. Global division of labor
    3. Intervening opportunity
    4. Global-local continuum
  19. Reindeer herding as an economic activity of the Sami in Norway is an example of which of the following types of diffusion?

    1. Stimulus
    2. Hierarchical
    3. Relocation
    4. Contagious
  20. The federal government can influence the policies of state governments through use of

    1. grants-in-aid
    2. the line-item veto
    3. executive privilege
    4. separation of powers
  21. According to Article III, Section 1, of the United States Constitution, judges "shall hold their offices during good behavior …" A consequence of this clause is that:

    1. Congress cannot remove federal judges from office
    2. federal judges have political independence to fulfill their duties
    3. the president has no influence over the composition of the Supreme Court
    4. federal judges lack opportunity for advancement or promotion
  22. People who believe their political views are important, that government will respect these views, and that their views can influence political affairs are said to have a strong sense of

    1. political partisanship
    2. political alienation
    3. political allegiance
    4. political efficacy
  23. Which of the following has reduced the power of political parties?

    1. An increase in the number of direct primary elections
    2. A surge in soft-money campaign contributions
    3. Stricter voter registration requirements
    4. A decline in the number of political action committees
  24. "I counted seven ministers all preaching at once. . . . Some of the people were singing, others praying, some crying for mercy in the most piteous accents."

    The quotation above describes group participation in an event that was most characteristic of which of the following?

    1. A meeting of the Pennsylvania Quakers during the time of the Revolution
    2. A frontier camp meeting of the Second Great Awakening during the early nineteenth century
    3. A presentation to a Chautauqua Assembly during the late nineteenth century
    4. A convention of the Women's Christian Temperance Union during in the late nineteenth century
  25. During President Dwight Eisenhower's administration in the 1950s, the federal government promoted significant changes in transportation in the United States by

    1. establishing generous subsidies for urban mass transit
    2. sponsoring research to develop less polluting automobiles
    3. funding the construction of the interstate highway system
    4. funding the establishment of a national railroad passenger system
  26. The construction of a transportation network that included roads, canals, and steamboats that took shape in the United States in the early decades of the nineteenth century had which of the following effects in the years before the Civil War?

    1. It decreased the need for immigrant labor.
    2. It stimulated the development of a market revolution.
    3. It weakened the plantation system in the southern states.
    4. It transformed the United States into an international military power.
  27. Which of the following statements reflects the Confucian worldview that figured prominently in classical Chinese culture?

    1. Having faith in God will be rewarded in the afterlife.
    2. Life's ultimate goal is to escape the suffering inherent in the endless cycle of death and reincarnation.
    3. A life of quiet contemplation and isolation from worldly temptations will result in self-perfection.
    4. Observing rules of proper behavior toward others will ensure social and political harmony.

  28. Creation of the German Empire, 1866-1871

    The map above best illustrates which of the following aspects about the unification of Germany between 1866 and 1871?

    1. It was achieved through a combination of diplomatic and military means.
    2. It was led by the government of German-speaking Austria.
    3. The states that became part of unified Germany in 1871 had previously been allies of Austria.
    4. Prussians could vote for Parliament in the unified German state, but Germans from other states could not.
  29. Which of the following groups was converted to Christianity by missionaries from the Byzantine Empire?

    1. Franks
    2. Vikings
    3. Russians
    4. Anglo-Saxons