E T S Praxis Series

Social Studies: Content Knowledge (0081)

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Topics Covered

Representative descriptions of topics covered in each category are provided below.

Current section: I. United States History

IV. Geography

  • Understands map types and projections and is able to acquire, organize, and analyze information from a spatial perspective.
  • Is familiar with the use of mental maps to organize spatial information.
  • Knows how to recognize and interpret spatial patterns (e.g., population density, literacy rates, infant mortality) presented at different scales from local to global.
  • Knows how to locate and use sources of geographic data (e.g., Census Bureau, Population Reference Bureau).
  • Understands spatial concepts (e.g., location, place, region) and knows how to apply them to interpret data.
  • Understands how physical processes, climate patterns, and natural hazards affect human societies.
  • Knows the characteristics and spatial distribution of Earth's ecosystems.
  • Understands the interrelationships of humans and their environments.
  • Understands renewable and nonrenewable natural resources.
  • Understands spatial patterns of cultural (e.g., ethnic, linguistic, religious) and economic activities.
  • Understands patterns of migration (internal and international) and settlement (urban and rural).
  • Understands the development and changing nature of agriculture (e.g., genetically modified crops, agribusiness, biotechnologies).
  • Knows contemporary patterns and impacts of development, industrialization, and globalization.
  • Understands demographic patterns (e.g., composition, density, distribution) and demographic change.
  • Knows basic concepts of political geography, including borders, state formation, and contemporary areas of conflict.