E T S Praxis Series

Middle School Social Studies (0089)

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  1. The correct answer is D. Of the countries named, only the United States enjoyed geographic isolation ("free protection provided by nature"). In addition, the British colonies that later became the United States constituted the only listed area that had been protected by the British navy.

  2. The correct answer is A. Prior to the Civil War, immigration to the United States came almost exclusively from Northern and Western Europe, with large numbers of people coming from Ireland, Great Britain, Germany, and Scandinavia. The immigration wave from Southern and Eastern Europe followed the Civil War, peaking in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Immigration from Latin America and the Caribbean did not become significant numerically until the second half of the twentieth century. Immigration from Asia and the Pacific Islands was significant in the last quarter of the nineteenth century and in the second half of the twentieth century.

  3. The correct answer is D. Of the ethnic groups named, only the Native Americans were offered promises (in the form of treaties) that were broken with the result of being deprived of their land. African Americans were deprived of their freedom and their rights, but were not generally offered promises or deprived of land. Greek and Polish Americans experienced discrimination, but were offered no official promises and were not deprived of their land.

  4. The correct answer is B. As the map indicates, most western states were early in granting women suffrage, while those of the east coast were slower to do so, and those of the Midwest were split in their response. Since the states of the west were among the first to give women the right to vote, westward settlement clearly did not inhibit the growth of equal suffrage.

  5. The correct answer is C, I and II only. The oldest known remains of homo sapiens have been dated at 75,000 to 115,000 years old. The earliest evidence of agriculture dates from 10,000 years ago. Until then, humans survived only by hunting animals and gathering plants for food.

  6. The correct answer is B. Nigeria became independent in 1960 and in 1966 violent clashes between the Hausa people and the Igbo people led to the deaths of thousands of Igbo and the establishment of the independent Igbo state of Biafra, later reabsorbed into Nigeria. India became independent in 1947. Ethnic strife between Hindus and Muslims preceded independence and led to the establishment of the Muslim state of Pakistan. Strife between Hindus and Muslims continues in India, however. Sudan became independent in 1956. Ethnic strife between the predominantly Arab and Muslim North and the predominantly African/animist South preceded independence and led to two periods of civil war, from 1955 to 1972, and from 1983 to 2005. Egypt, which became independent in 1922, is relatively homogeneous in terms of ethnicity, and has not experienced civil wars along ethnic lines.

  7. The correct answer is A. The power to make treaties is specifically granted to the President in Article II of the Constitution. Under Article V, the power to amend the Constitution is reserved to the states and to Congress. Congress, under Article I, has the power to impeach the President, but the reverse is not true. Also under Article I, Congress has the power to raise and support an army.

  8. The correct answer is B — without the participation of its citizens, a nation cannot have a successful democracy. While the United States has three branches of government, this number of branches is not necessary for a successful democracy. Many successful democracies, including Great Britain, do not have direct election of the head of government. Federalism is a component of many, but not all, successful democracies. France, for example, does not have a federal form of government.

  9. The correct answer is B. The valleys of the Yangtze in China, the Nile in Egypt, and the Indus in India and Pakistan all support huge populations of people, densely clustered along these watercourses. The Amazon, on the other hand, flows for much of its length through very sparsely populated rain forest.

  10. The correct answer is B. City B is at the confluence of two rivers and the crossroads of three major highways; since this is true of none of the other cities, City B has the greatest potential for economic development.

  11. The correct answer is C, an increase in the number of widgets imported to the United States. The increase in the wages of widget workers has led to an increase in the cost of widgets produced in the United States. This will almost inevitably lead to an increase in the price of domestically produced widgets, which will, in turn, lead to consumers seeking cheaper widgets — those produced in other countries.

  12. The correct answer is B. The obstetrician is discussing changes in people's learned behavior made through education, encouragement, and example. No actions by government or another official body are mentioned, therefore eliminating regulations (A) and policies (C). Instincts (D) are not learned behavior but rather are innate and would not be affected by the obstetrician's actions. "Norms," society's often unwritten and unspoken rules, serve to guide and control proper and acceptable behavior and can be affected by the type of actions that the obstetrician describes taking.

  13. The correct answer is D. This question is definitional; only choice D has the complete definition.

  14. The correct answer is C. Lowering the student-teacher ratio requires the creation of many sections of a class. Since additional teachers need to be hired to accomplish the task, the demand for teachers will increase. A is incorrect because increasing the salaries of teachers increases the number of people willing to teach, but it may decrease the number of teachers that will be demanded. B is incorrect; raising the retirement age for teachers limits the availability of vacancies. D is incorrect, since consolidating school districts may decrease the demand for teachers.

  15. The correct answer is C. Guest workers are solicited from nearby nations, often those with a colonial connection to the receiving nation. Since guest workers serve as temporary workers, proximity to the receiving country is important. Thus, although all have colonial ties to countries of western Europe, the United States (A), Latin America (B), and Australia and New Zealand (D) would not be likely source countries for western Europe because of the great distance.

  16. The correct answer is B. Varanasi (Banaras) is a holy city of the Hindus and the object of constant pilgrimages; Mecca is a holy city and principal pilgrimage destination of Islam.

  17. The correct answer is B. The European countries, A and D, are not primarily exporting countries and only Ireland and the United Kingdom offer extensive financial connections. C is not correct, because Cuba, Haiti and Jamaica as a region do not have large cities, numerous exports, or an increasing consumption of raw materials.

  18. The correct answer is D, since the impeachment process is a tool to curb the power of the executive branch. A Supreme Court ruling upholding a state law is merely an affirmation of the state's powers. A state lobbying for increased Congressional funding or an interest group lobbying for a particular stand on legislation is merely affirming the power of the legislative body and is not a check on its powers.

  19. The correct answer is A. The president nominates federal judges, who are then confirmed by the Senate. None of the other officials listed above are involved in the process.

  20. The correct answer is B. Government agencies, as part of the executive branch, report to the president, not Congress, and Congress does not have the authority to order the president to reform an agency. However, Congress does have the power of regulatory oversight and the power to appropriate funds for agencies. Therefore, under the system of checks and balances, Congress can hold investigations into the activities of an agency.

  21. The correct answer is A. The Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka ruled that segregated schooling denied "equal protection of the laws" guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment, while Miranda v. Arizona was based on the Fifth Amendment's protection against self-incrimination. Only Miranda dealt with the rights of the accused, and only Brown concerned Jim Crow laws. Neither tended to limit federal power.

  22. The correct answer is B. It indicates that Douglass was using a rhetorical device to emphasize the gap between the principles of freedom and justice championed in the Declaration of Independence and the continuing existence of a slave system in the United States. The quotation does not concern the Civil War, Douglass' personal experience, or Reconstruction.

  23. The correct answer is A. Senator Joseph McCarthy gained prominence based on charges that communists had attained positions of influence in the United States government. He did not, however, claim that most United States voters supported communists. Nor did he focus on the issues of imports or illegal immigration.

  24. The correct answer is C. The largest expansion of African territory directly under European colonial control took place in the late nineteenth century, especially in the wake of the Berlin Conference of 1884. During this period, Britain substantially expanded its colonial territories in West Africa (Nigeria), East Africa (Kenya, Uganda, etc.), and southern Africa (Rhodesia, Botswana, etc.); France acquired large territories in West Africa (Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Niger, etc,), Central Africa (Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, etc.), and North Africa (Tunisia); Germany created a substantial colonial presence (Namibia, Tanganyika, Togo, etc.); Portugal consolidated and expanded its African colonies (Angola, Mozambique, etc.); and the Belgian king Leopold II acquired a huge personal fiefdom in central Africa (The Congo Free State).

  25. The correct answer is A. Germans believed that they had been cheated by the peace settlement agreed to in the Treaty of Versailles, and this sense of resentment later fueled the rise of the Nazi Party. The Treaty of Versailles did not break Germany up into western and eastern parts (B); that division took place after the end of the Second World War. The British did not give control of Palestine to the Arabs living there (C). Rather, in the Balfour Declaration, Britain indicated that it "view[ed] with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people." The Austrian empire was broken up into various parts as a result of the peace conference, with Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Hungary created in its place.

  26. The correct answer is D. Muslim scholars of that period were largely responsible for the preservation of classical Greek and Roman texts and their eventual transmission to western Europe in the late Middle Ages. Under the generous patronage of the Abbasid caliphs and other Muslim rulers, Muslim scientists built on the foundation of classical science with numerous original discoveries in fields such as mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry and medicine.