E T S Praxis Series

Middle School Social Studies (0089)

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Topics Covered

Representative descriptions of topics covered in each category are provided below.

Current section: I. United States History

I. United States History

  1. Chronological Developments in United States History

    • Understands basic North American geography and the peoples and cultures of North America prior to European colonization.
    • Understands how and why European colonies in North America were founded and developed.
    • Understands how European, African and American Indian peoples interacted in North America during the colonial period.
    • Understands the origins of the American Revolution and the challenges faced by the early republic.
    • Understands the context that led to the writing and adoption of the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights and their impact on the political development of the early United States.
    • Understands causes (e.g., Manifest Destiny, gold rush) and effects (e.g., displacement of native peoples, economic expansion) of territorial expansion of the United States in the 19th century.
    • Understands causes and effects of 19th century sectionalism, the Civil War and Reconstruction.
    • Understands the relationship among industrialization, urbanization and immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
    • Knows major political, economic, social and cultural developments from the Progressive Era through the New Deal.
    • Understands causes of United States participation in the World War I and World War II and effects of the wars at home and abroad.
    • Understands the origins, development and effects of the Cold War both abroad and domestically.
    • Understands social and political changes in the United States from the 1940s to the 1970s (e.g., civil rights movement, counterculture, conservatism).
    • Understands impact of economic and technological changes in the latter half of the 20th century (e.g., globalization, information age).
  1. Major Themes in United States History

    • Understands ongoing impacts of racial, gender, and ethnic divisions throughout American history.
    • Understands how participants in the political process (e.g., presidents, the judiciary, Congress and political parties) engaged in politics and shaped policy.
    • Understands the emergence of the United States as a world power and the evolving role of the United States in the world.
    • Understands major economic transformations (e.g., in agriculture, in business and in labor) that occurred in the United States.
    • Understands causes and effects of changing patterns of immigration to the United States and internal migration within the United States.
    • Understands the struggle and achievements by individuals and groups for greater political and civil rights throughout United States history.