E T S Praxis Series

Middle School Content Knowledge (0146/5146)

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Topics Covered

Representative descriptions of topics covered in each category are provided below. Within each content area, the approximate percentage of examination questions is shown for each topic.

Current section: IV. Science

IV. Science

Focus is on the ability to demonstrate an understanding of scientific concepts, apply those concepts, identify problems, formulate and test hypotheses, design experiments, analyze and evaluate data, use both theoretical and practical models, and use instruments. Because science is viewed as an integrated field, a single question may assess understanding of several content areas.

  • Biology (33-34%)
    • cellular biology: biologically important molecules, structure and function of cells and their organelles, energy sources and processes, and genes and gene function
    • biology of organisms: life forms, structure and function of organ systems, and basic principles of heredity
    • ecology, interrelationships in the biosphere: characteristics of ecosystems, energy flow in biological communities, and characteristics of biological communities
    • evolution: evolutionary mechanisms, evolutionary patterns, evidence for evolutionary change, and history of life as related to the geological time-line
  • Geosciences (33-34%)
    • astronomy: the solar system and planetary systems, stars and galaxies, and cosmology
    • geology: earth materials, internal processes, landforms and external processes, and the history of the Earth and its life forms
    • meteorology: atmospheric composition and structure, atmospheric movement, and weather and climate
    • oceanography: biological, chemical, geological, and physical processes and characteristics
  • Physical sciences (33-34%)
    • matter: characteristics, structure, and physical and chemical properties
    • reactions and interactions: kinetic theory, changes in state, chemical reactions, oxidation and reduction, acids and bases, catalysts, and chemical bonding
    • macromechanics: straight line, projectile, circular, and periodic motion, Newton's laws of motion, gravity, weight, mass, and conservation laws
    • energy: sources and transformations, and heat
    • electricity and magnetism: static and current electricity, circuits, magnetism, and applications
    • wave phenomena: electromagnetic spectrum, mirrors, lenses, sound production, and applications
    • modern physics/nuclear chemistry: relativity, radioactivity, fusion, and fission