E T S Praxis Series

Middle School Science (0439)

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Topics Covered

Representative descriptions of topics covered in each category are provided below.

Current section: III. Physical Sciences

III. Physical Sciences

  1. Physics
    1. Mechanics
      • Demonstrate understanding of (the variables involved in) straight line motion, projectile motion, circular motion, and periodic motion
      • Demonstrate understanding of Newtonís laws of motion
      • Distinguish between weight and mass
      • Demonstrate understanding of friction
      • Distinguish among work, energy, and power
      • Demonstrate understanding of simple machines and torque
      • Demonstrate understanding of linear momentum
      • Demonstrate understanding of the conservation of energy and the conservation of linear momentum
      • Demonstrate understanding of angular momentum and torque and angular momentum conservation
      • Demonstrate understanding of the force of gravity
      • Demonstrate understanding of pressure and Pascalís principles for fluids
      • Demonstrate understanding of Archimedesí principle (buoyancy)
      • Demonstrate understanding of Bernoulliís principle for fluids
    1. Electricity and Magnetism
      • Demonstrate understanding of the repulsion and attraction of electric charges
      • Demonstrate understanding of the characteristics of current electricity and simple circuits (for example, resistance, and Ohmís law, electromotive force, potential difference capacitance, current)
      • Compare and contrast series and parallel circuits
      • Compare and contrast conductors and insulators
      • Apply Ohmís law to series and parallel circuits
      • Compare and contrast direct current and alternating current
      • Identify sources of EMF (for example, batteries, photo cells, generators)
      • Demonstrate understanding of magnets, magnetic fields, and magnetic forces
      • Demonstrate understanding of how transformers and motors work
    1. Waves
      • Define and use the terms speed, amplitude, wavelength, and frequency
      • Distinguish between the characteristics of transverse and longitudinal waves
      • Demonstrate understanding of reflection, refraction, dispersion, absorption, transmission, scattering, and superposition
      • Demonstrate understanding of diffraction and interference
      • Demonstrate understanding of the Doppler Effect
      • Demonstrate understanding of polarization
      • Recognize the characteristics of sound waves (for example, pitch, loudness, speed)
      • Demonstrate understanding of how sound waves are produced by the vibrations of air columns and strings
      • Characterize the electromagnetic spectrum (gamma rays to radio waves)
      • Demonstrate understanding of color and the visible spectrum (for example, addition and subtraction, relationship to wave frequency)
      • Demonstrate understanding of geometric optics (mirrors, lenses, prisms, fiber optics) and of polarization
  1. Chemistry
    1. Periodicity
      • Demonstrate understanding of the meaning of chemical periodicity
      • Demonstrate understanding of periodic trends in chemical and physical properties
    1. The Mole and Chemical Bonding
      • Demonstrate understanding of the mole concept and chemical composition
      • Interpret and use chemical formulas
      • Demonstrate understanding of the systematic nomenclature of inorganic compounds
      • Demonstrate understanding of the nomenclature of simple organic compounds
      • Identify the various types of bonds
      • Interpret electron dot and structural formulas
    1. The Kinetic Theory and States of Matter
      • Demonstrate understanding of kinetic molecular theory
      • Demonstrate understanding of phase changes
      • Demonstrate understanding of the relationships among temperature, pressure, volume, and number of molecules of a gas
      • Demonstrate understanding of the characteristics of crystals
    1. Chemical Reactions
      • Demonstrate ability to balance chemical equations
      • Identify the various types of chemical reactions
      • Distinguish between endothermic and exothermic chemical reactions
      • Demonstrate understanding of the effects of temperature, pressure, concentration, and the presence of catalysts on chemical reactions
      • Demonstrate understanding of practical applications of electrochemistry
    1. Solutions and Solubility
      • Demonstrate understanding of solution terminology and distinguish among types of solutions
      • Demonstrate understanding of various types of solvents and factors affecting the dissolving process
      • Demonstrate understanding of the effect of temperature and pressure on the solubility of a solute
      • Demonstrate understanding of the physical and chemical properties of acids, bases, and salts
      • Demonstrate knowledge of the meaning of pH and the effects of buffers