E T S Praxis Series

Middle School Science (0439)

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Topics Covered

Representative descriptions of topics covered in each category are provided below.

Current section: IV. Life Sciences

IV. Life Sciences

  1. The Cell
    1. Demonstrate knowledge of the structure and function of organelles, including membranes
    1. Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
    1. Demonstrate understanding of the cell cycle and cytokinesis
    1. Demonstrate understanding of chemical reactions in respiration and photosynthesis
    1. Demonstrate understanding of mitosis and meiosis
  1. Genetics
    1. Demonstrate understanding of DNA replication
    1. Demonstrate understanding of the processes involved in protein synthesis
    1. Demonstrate understanding of the causes and results of mutation
    1. Demonstrate understanding of Mendelian inheritance (monohybrid and dihybrid crosses)
    1. Demonstrate understanding of some aspects of non-Mendelian inheritance (for example, multiple alleles, multiple genes)
    1. Demonstrate knowledge of how recombinant DNA is constructed
    1. Identify uses of recombinant DNA (for example, in the production of insulin)
    1. Demonstrate understanding of the interaction between heredity and environment
    1. Identify chromosomal and gene aberrations that lead to common human genetic disorders (for example, Down syndrome)
  1. Evolution
    1. Identify evidence that supports the theory of evolution
    1. Demonstrate understanding of the mechanisms of evolution
    1. Demonstrate knowledge of isolating mechanisms and speciation
    1. Demonstrate understanding of the scientific hypotheses for the origin of life on Earth
  1. Diversity of Life
    1. Demonstrate understanding of the levels of organization and characteristics of life
    1. Identify the elements of the hierarchical classification scheme into kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species
    1. Demonstrate knowledge of the characteristics of viruses, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals
  1. Plants
    1. Demonstrate understanding of the characteristics of vascular and nonvascular plants
    1. Demonstrate understanding of the structure and function of roots, stems, and leaves
    1. Demonstrate understanding of control mechanisms (for example, hormones, photoperiods, and tropisms)
    1. Demonstrate understanding of water and nutrient uptake and transport systems
    1. Demonstrate understanding of sexual and asexual reproduction in plants
  1. Animals
    1. Demonstrate understanding of the anatomy and physiology of structures associated with life functions of organisms in the animal kingdom: digestion; circulation; respiration; excretion; nervous control; musculo-skeletal system; immunity; the endocrine system; reproduction and development
    1. Demonstrate knowledge of homeostasis and how it is maintained
    1. Demonstrate knowledge of how animals respond to stimuli
  1. Ecology
    1. Demonstrate understanding of population dynamics
    1. Demonstrate knowledge of social behaviors (for example, territoriality, dominance, altruism, threat display)
    1. Demonstrate understanding of intraspecific competition
    1. Demonstrate understanding of interspecific relationships (for example, commensalism, mutualism, parasitism)
    1. Demonstrate understanding of succession
    1. Demonstrate understanding of the concepts of stability of ecosystems and the effects of disturbances
    1. Demonstrate understanding of energy flow (for example, trophic levels and food webs)
    1. Demonstrate understanding of biogeochemical cycles (for example, nitrogen, carbon, water)
    1. Identify the types and characteristics of biomes