E T S Praxis Series

Principles of Learning and Teaching: Grades 7-12 (0524)

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Topics Covered

Current section: II. Instruction and Assessment

II. Instruction and Assessment

  1. Instructional Strategies
    1. Major cognitive processes associated with student learning
      • Critical thinking
      • Creative thinking
      • Higher-order thinking
      • Inductive and deductive thinking
      • Problem structuring and problem solving
      • Invention
      • Memorization and recall
      • Social reasoning
      • Representation of ideas
    2. Major categories, advantages, and appropriate uses of instructional strategies
      • Cooperative learning
      • Direct instruction
      • Discovery learning
      • Whole-group discussion
      • Independent study
      • Interdisciplinary instruction
      • Concept mapping
      • Inquiry method
      • Questioning
      • Play
      • Learning centers
      • Small-group work
      • Revisiting
      • Reflection
      • Project approach
    3. Principles, techniques, and methods associated with major instructional strategies
      • Direct instruction
      • Student-centered models
    1. Methods for enhancing student learning through the use of a variety of resources and materials
      • Computers, Internet resources, Web pages, e-mail
      • Audiovisual technologies such as videotapes and compact discs (CDs)
      • Local experts
      • Primary documents and artifacts
      • Field trips
      • Libraries
      • Service learning
  1. Planning Instruction
    1. Techniques for planning instruction, including addressing curriculum goals, selecting content topics, incorporating learning theory, subject matter, curriculum development, and student development and interests
      • National and state learning standards
      • State and local curriculum frameworks
      • State and local curriculum guides
      • Scope and sequence in specific disciplines
      • Units and lessons
        • Rationale for selecting content topics
      • Behavioral objectives: affective, cognitive, psychomotor, speech/language
      • Learner objectives and outcomes
      • Emergent curriculum
      • Antibias curriculum
      • Themes/projects
      • Curriculum webbing
    1. Techniques for creating effective bridges between curriculum goals and students' experiences
      • Modeling
      • Guided practice
      • Independent practice, including homework
      • Transitions
      • Activating students' prior knowledge
      • Anticipating preconceptions
      • Encouraging exploration and problem solving
      • Building new skills on those previously acquired
      • Predicting
  1. Assessment Strategies
    1. Types of assessments
    2. Characteristics of assessments
    3. Scoring assessments
    4. Uses of assessments
    5. Understanding of measurement theory and assessment-related issues
    6. Interpreting and communicating results of assessments