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Strategy 11: Divide into Cases

Some problems are quite complex. To solve such problems you may need to divide them into smaller, less complex problems, which are restricted cases of the original problem. When you divide a problem into cases, you should consider whether or not to include all possibilities. For example, if you want to prove that a certain statement is true for all integers, it may be best to show that it is true for all positive integers, then show it is true for all negative integers, and then show it is true for zero. In doing that, you will have shown that the statement is true for all integers, because each integer is either positive, negative, or zero.

• This strategy is used in the following two sample questions.

This is a Quantitative Comparison question.


  1. Quantity A Quantity B
    The least prime number greater than 24 The greatest prime number less than 28

    (A) Quantity A is greater.
    (B) Quantity B is greater.
    (C) The two quantities are equal.
    (D) The relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

     

    Explanation

    For the integers greater than 24, note that 25, 26, 27, and 28 are not prime numbers, but 29 is a prime number, as are 31 and many other greater integers. Thus, 29 is the least prime number greater than 24, and Quantity A is 29. For the integers less than 28, note that 27, 26, 25, and 24 are not prime numbers, but 23 is a prime number, as are 19 and several other lesser integers. Thus, 23 is the greatest prime number less than 28, and Quantity B is 23. Thus, the correct answer is Choice A, Quantity A is greater.

This is a Multiple-Choice – Select One or More Answer Choices question.

  1. Which of the following integers are multiples of both 2 and 3?

    Indicate all such integers.

    (A) 8
    (B) 9
    (C) 12
    (D) 18
    (E) 21
    (F) 36

     

    Explanation

    You can first identify the multiples of 2, which are 8, 12, 18, and 36, and then among the multiples of 2 identify the multiples of 3, which are 12, 18, and 36. Alternatively, if you realize that every number that is a multiple of 2 and 3 is also a multiple of 6, you can identify the choices that are multiples of 6. The correct answer consists of Choices C (12), D (18), and F (36).

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