Praxis II® Test Content and Structure

The Praxis II® tests consist of three groups of tests:

  • Subject Assessments — Measure general and subject-specific teaching skills and knowledge. Tests include both multiple-choice and constructed-response (essay) questions.
  • Principles of Learning and Teaching (PLT) Tests — Measure your general pedagogical knowledge at one of four grade level ranges: Early Childhood, K–6, 5–9 and 7–12. These tests feature multiple-choice questions and short constructed-response prompts based on information provided in case studies.
  • Teaching Foundations Tests — Measure pedagogy in four areas: Multiple Subjects, Mathematics, English and Science. These tests feature multiple-choice and constructed-response questions.

Praxis II Test Structure

Praxis II tests are 1, 2, 2 1/2, 3 1/2 or 4 hours long and include multiple-choice questions, essay or constructed-response questions, or a combination of both question types. The number of questions and length of each test varies depending on the test. Review the appropriate Study Companion for details on test structure and length.

How Test Questions Are Created

Educators, faculty of teacher preparation programs and disciplinary specialists prepare Praxis II test questions. The developers and reviewers follow rigorous, standardized procedures to ensure that test material reflects the skills being tested and meets high quality assessment standards. Each question is reviewed by ETS experts as well as content advisory groups, who are also engaged in establishing guidelines and standards for what the tests should measure.

After test questions have been reviewed and revised, they are administered in trial situations and assembled into tests. Tests are then reviewed according to ETS procedures to ensure that all tests are free of cultural bias. Statistical analyses of individual questions ensure that all items provide appropriate measurement information.


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