Frequently Asked Questions About The Praxis™ Series Tests

Top 10 Frequently Asked Questions

1. How do I know which test(s) to take?

Check the State Requirements page for the state in which you are planning to become certified or contact your state department of education. Each state using The Praxis Series™ tests sets its own testing requirements.

2. Where do I find information on test centers, test dates or deadlines?

This information is found on the Praxis™ Test Centers and Dates page.

3. How do I register for a Praxis test?

See How to Register for registration information, including how to register online.

4. Is there a registration fee for my test?

There is no registration fee for your Praxis test. See Test Fees for information on specific test and service fees.

5. How do I add a test to my registration, change my test date, change my test center or test?

Learn how to make changes to your registration on our Praxis Registration Changes page.

6. What do I do if I forget my user name and password?

Follow the appropriate link on the account sign-in page to view your user name or create a new password.

7. Where can I find information to help me prepare for my Praxis test?

View the Prepare for a Test page for free and affordable test prep materials.

8. When will my scores be available and where can I find help understanding my scores?

Praxis score report schedules and Praxis score information, including a downloadable score guide, is available on the Scores page.

9. How do I cancel my registration and receive a refund?

Learn about canceling your registration and receiving a refund on the Praxis Registration Changes page of our website.

10. How can I contact ETS about The Praxis Series tests?

Visit the Praxis Contact Us page.

About the Test

Why take The Praxis Series™ tests?

These tests are required by state departments of education and by colleges and universities to measure the academic achievement and proficiency of individuals entering or completing teacher preparation programs.

Do all states require these tests?

The Praxis Series tests are currently required for teacher licensure in approximately 40 states and U.S. territories. These tests are also used by several professional licensing agencies and by several hundred colleges and universities. Since The Praxis Series tests are used to license teachers in many states, teacher candidates can test in one state and submit their scores for licensure in any other Praxis™ user state. See State Requirements for your state.

How do I know which tests to take?

Visit the State Requirements page.

Where do I find information on test centers, test dates or deadlines?

This information is found on the Praxis Test Centers and Dates page.

How can I learn more about what's covered in each test?

Various test preparation materials are available to help you learn more about the tests. Study Companion materials include content outlines, sample questions with rationale for the best answers and test-taking strategies. These are available as downloadable Adobe® Acrobat® PDF files.

What types of questions will I find on these tests?

The Praxis Core Academic Skills for Educators (Core) Tests, the Praxis I® Pre-Professional Skills Tests and the Praxis II Subject Assessments feature multiple-choice and essay questions that measure the content and pedagogical knowledge necessary for a beginning teacher. For details on the types of questions you'll encounter on a specific test, please visit the Prepare for a Test page, select your test from the dropdown menu, and click on the Study Companion.

Should I take the computer-delivered test or the paper-delivered test?

The decision of how to take the test is really based on your own preference. If you are more comfortable taking a paper-and-pencil test, then that is the best way. However, if you are more comfortable with a computer for testing, then take it on the computer. Please note: not all tests are available in both formats.

Is there a difference between the computer-delivered test and the paper-delivered test?

The computer-delivered test and paper-delivered test cover and score the same content.

Do I have to take all the Praxis I tests on the computer, or can I take one or more test(s) in the paper-delivered format?

You may take tests in any order in the format you are most comfortable with. It is critical that you make sure you take the correct tests to meet the State Requirements of the state in which you are interested in teaching.

Can I take the Praxis II test before the Praxis I or Praxis Core test?

Yes you can take the Praxis II test before Praxis I or Praxis Core. Which tests you take and when they should be taken in your career depends on your state and teacher preparation program. It is important to check your State Requirements and/or check with your teacher preparation program prior to registering for any of the tests.

What is the test content based on?

For each test, a job analysis survey is conducted to determine what a representative group of teachers and teacher educators believe that a newly licensed or certified teacher should know to perform his or her job competently. Based on the results of the job analysis as well as any national disciplinary standards that may apply, an Advisory Committee of teachers and teacher educators defines the content areas that should be covered on the test. Test specifications are then created to guide the development effort.

Test development specialists and practicing teachers use this information to develop test questions. Once developed, the questions undergo a series of reviews conducted by the Advisory Committee, content experts and ETS staff to confirm that they cover the content defined in the test specifications. At every step in the test development process, ETS follows well-established industry procedures and standards designed to assure that the test measures what it is intended to measure.

What do the Praxis tests measure?

The Praxis Series tests measure specific content and pedagogical knowledge for beginning teaching practice. The tests do not measure skills related to an individual's disposition toward teaching or potential for success. The assessments are designed to be comprehensive and inclusive, but are limited to what can be covered in a finite number of questions and question types.

Who creates The Praxis Series tests?

The tests are developed by educators for educators. Advisory committees of distinguished teachers, teacher educators, key administrators and professional organizations help determine test content and review, revise and approve all questions and exercises. The Praxis Series is grounded in current research, including a comprehensive analysis of the most important tasks and skills required of beginning teachers, as well as extensive surveys to confirm test validity.

How does ETS ensure that Praxis tests are valid and fair?

ETS uses a validation process consistent with the technical guidelines in the 1999 AERA Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. View the ETS Standards for Quality and Fairness.

How are the tests updated to ensure the content remains current?

The Praxis Series tests are reviewed regularly. During the first phase of review, ETS conducts an analysis of relevant state and association standards and of the current test content. State licensure titles and the results of relevant job analyses are also considered. Revised test questions are then produced following the standard test development methodology. National advisory committees may also be convened to review existing test specifications and to evaluate test forms for alignment with the specifications.

Registration

How do I register for a test?

You can register online, by mail or by phone. See Praxis Registration for more information.

How do I add a test to my registration, change my test date, change my test center or test type?

To learn how to make changes to your registration, see Praxis Registration Changes.

What if I miss the registration deadlines for paper-delivered tests?

If you miss both the regular and extended registration deadlines for a paper-delivered test administration, you may elect to register by the emergency registration deadline for an additional fee of $75. This service ensures that you will have a seat at a test center. Because of the amount of time needed to review documentation, this service is not available to test takers seeking accommodations or testing arrangements outside the continental United States. Emergency Registration can ONLY be done on the Praxis website, via the Praxis online registration system, and is for paper-delivered test dates only. Appointments for computer-delivered tests are scheduled based on test and test center availability and may be scheduled up to three days prior to your requested test date. The registration deadlines referred to here apply only to paper-delivered tests. See Register for a Computer-delivered Test for more information.

When I registered by mail for a paper-delivered test, I was assigned to a test center far from my first-choice test center. Can I change my test center?

ETS makes every effort to assign test centers within 125 miles of your first choice. However, in some cases there are no available seats at the requested centers, so we must assign examinees to the next closest available test center. To request a test center or date change, contact Praxis Customer Service. Test takers who register online select and confirm their test center at the time of registration.

Will I receive an admission ticket or do I need to request one?

You will need an admission ticket to enter the test center. Print a copy of your admission ticket from your My Praxis account. Occasionally a test center's reporting location may change. Please be sure to log into your account three days prior to your appointment to confirm the location and print an updated admission ticket. You will not receive a mailed admission ticket if you registered online.

If you registered via mail, fax or phone, your ticket should arrive at least one week before your scheduled test date. If you do not receive your admission ticket by that time, contact Praxis Customer Service. ETS will resend the ticket or provide you with information to enable you to test without it. (You may also print your admission ticket via your online Praxis account.)

I received a bill after I submitted my registration. Does this mean my registration will not be processed? Will I still be allowed to test?

Although you received an invoice, you will still be registered and admitted for testing. However, your test scores will not be released until your account is paid in full.

I will need to report my test scores to my college. Do I only identify my college in the Attending Institution box on the registration form, or do I also need to include it in the Designated Score Recipients box?

In order for your scores to be reported to your college, you will need to identify your school as a score recipient on your registration form or during the registration process. The attending institution section of the registration form/process simply enables us to include information about your attending institution (the institution at which you have received relevant instruction) on your score report.

Am I required to provide my Social Security number during registration? What happens if I don't?

Some states require a social security number (SSN) to process teacher certification paperwork. Check your state's requirements to see if your state requires a SSN with your test score reports. ETS does not require your SSN for its own purposes, but will submit it to your state agency with your test results. Failure to provide your SSN could delay your state's processing of your certification application.

What if I am absent from the test?

If you are absent from the test, you automatically forfeit all test fees. However, you can request a transfer of your registration to a future test date in the same testing year up to four days prior to the test date. You may not transfer your registration from the previous testing year to the current testing year. There is a $30 fee for this service.

How do I cancel my registration and receive a refund?

To learn about canceling your registration and receiving a refund, see Praxis Registration Changes.

What if I need to make changes to the information on my record?

To make changes before a test, log into your Praxis account. You may also download the E-Ticket Correction Form and follow the directions provided for submitting the form to ETS. Correction forms will also be available at the test center. If you received an admission ticket in the mail, you can complete the correction form attached to your admission ticket.

Online Registration

What can I do through my Praxis account online?
  • Register for a test
  • Select a test center
  • Reserve a seat
  • Order test prep materials
  • Provide demographic information about yourself
  • Pay for the test
  • Select recipients for your test scores (if applicable)
  • View your order history
  • Make changes to your registration
  • Print the admission ticket for an upcoming test
  • View your scores
  • Order additional score reports
  • Update your personal information or profile
What do I need to register online?
  • If you registered online before, log in using your established user name and password; otherwise, you must create a profile and set up a user name and password.
  • A valid mailing address
  • A valid email address
  • An accepted form of payment (credit or debit card, checking account, or PayPal™ account)
Is there a service fee for registering online?

No. There is no additional service fee for registering online.

Which browsers are supported by the online registration system?

The online registration system supports the latest versions of Internet Explorer®, Firefox® and Safari™ browsers. If you access our registration site through a different browser, some functionality may not perform optimally or may be disabled.

Is the online registration site secure?

Yes. We use a number of techniques to secure your visit. We authenticate you using the unique user name and password you have provided. After 30 minutes of inactivity on the site (i.e., you step away from the computer or switch to another website), the system will close your connection. In addition, when we take your credit card we use standard secure-encrypted methods to transmit your account information.

What should I do if I forget my user name and password?

On the sign-in page, under "Returning Users," click the "Forgot your user name or password?" links. You will be asked to enter information about yourself, answer the security question you selected when creating your account and create a new password. For security reasons, we do not send user names or passwords via email.

Can I reset my password on the Web?

Yes. After signing in, click the "Change Password or Security Question" link on your home page and follow the instructions to change your password.

Am I guaranteed a seat at a center if I register online?

ETS provides real-time seat assignments. You will be advised of seat availability when you select a test center. You must complete the registration process, including payment, and check out to guarantee your seat assignment.

What if I can't find a test center that still has a seat for me?

Many centers fill up quickly, so you may want to consider searching for test centers in neighboring states.

Are there any special instructions for individuals pursuing American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) certification?

Yes. If you are an Audiology or Speech Language Pathology test taker, you should refer to the Audiology/Speech Language Pathology Attending/Recipient Code List when selecting your attending institution and designated score recipients (if applicable) to ensure that the correct department and/or agency receives your scores.

How is my information used by the testing program?

Your biographical information is used to gather information for research purposes and to further ensure the validity and fairness of the test questions. See our Privacy and Security policy at the bottom of each page.

Why was I taken back to the sign-in page in the middle of my registration?

If you do not interact with the ETS.org site for 30 minutes or more, your session may expire and you will be taken back to the sign-in page.

How long after I register online should I wait to call to confirm my registration has been received by ETS?

There is no need to call to confirm your registration. Once you have completed an online registration and checked out, your information has been received at ETS.

How do I change an error on my admission ticket?

If there is an error on your admission ticket, such as a simple misspelling, corrections may be made online or by submitting an E-Ticket Correction Form prior to or on test day. For more information on other types of changes, such as changing a test, test date or test center, see Registration Changes.

I spelled my name incorrectly, or my name has changed. How do I correct this?

Only misspellings of your name can be corrected. NAME CHANGES WILL NOT BE MADE. If your name has changed for any reason, including marriage, you must still present primary identification in the name under which you registered or you will not be permitted to test.

If you require further assistance please contact our Customer Service Department.

How do I add another test for the same test date after I have completed and exited the registration process?

You may do this online, or you can complete and mail the Change Request Form to ETS or contact Customer Service. There is a $30 fee for this service.

Preparing for the Test

Where can I find information to help me prepare for the Praxis test?

Visit Prepare for a Praxis Test for free and affordable test prep materials.

Where can I find sample questions?

Sample test questions are available in the Study Companions, Study Guides and Practice Tests. To see which test preparation materials are available for the test(s) you are taking, select the test title(s) from the drop-down menu on the Prepare for a Praxis Test page.

Are the test-preparation materials free or do I have to buy them?

Both free and priced test preparation materials are available. To find out what test preparation materials are available for the test(s) you plan to take, go to the Prepare for a Praxis Test page and select your test title from the drop-down menu.

Does ETS offer any webinars or workshops?

Yes, view the Test Preparation Webinars page to learn about upcoming webinars.

How can I organize my efforts to prepare to take the test(s)?

Start by visiting the state requirements page for the state or agency in which you plan to seek certification to learn which Praxis tests are required. Review the Study Companion for each test you plan to take to learn about what content is covered by the test. The Praxis Series™ Information Bulletin will provide information on test dates, score reporting dates, registration and more. Select a test date that is far enough in the future to allow sufficient time to prepare for the test(s). The Develop a Study Plan document will help you organize your preparation efforts. Study Guides and Practice Tests may also be available for your test(s). Visit Prepare for a Praxis Test to view all the test preparation materials that are available for your test(s).

How can I learn more about what's covered on each test?

Praxis tests feature multiple-choice and essay questions that measure the content and pedagogical knowledge necessary for a beginning teacher. To see the specific content covered on each test, visit the Prepare for a Praxis Test page, select your test from the drop-down menu and view the test preparation offerings available.

What other resources exist to help me if I'm having difficulty passing a Praxis test?

Review your score report for information regarding specific content areas where you should focus your study efforts. The following documents may also be helpful.

However, the best preparation for taking a subject area test should be the knowledge and experience you gained through related courses taken as part of your teacher preparation program. You may benefit from reviewing your notes and textbooks from past course work, especially content that is outlined in the "Topics Covered" section of the Study Companion. You might also consider asking a mentor or professor to discuss the sample questions in the Study Companion or forming a study group with other examinees.

Test Day

Are calculators allowed for Praxis tests?

Graphing, scientific and four-function calculators are permitted or required for some Praxis tests; for detailed information, see Calculator Use. In general, unless it is specifically stated that a calculator is permitted or required for a particular test, calculators may not be used.

What if I can't take the test on my scheduled date?

You can change, cancel or reschedule your registration online. You may also complete and mail the Paper-delivered Test Change Request Form with $30 fee to ETS. If you cancel your test no later than four full days prior to your original test appointment, you may be eligible for a partial refund of your test fees. See refund policies and cancel/change policies for more information. 

What can I expect on the day of my computer delivered test?

Learn more about what you can expect when you go to a Prometric Test Center, by viewing the video, "Computer-Delivered Test Day Video (Flash)."

What does the computer-delivered testing platform look like?

Watch the interactive online demonstration Computer-Delivered Testing Demonstration (Flash) to familiarize yourself with the computer testing experience prior to test day. The interactive demonstration walks you through from logging in to exiting the test.

Can I bring food to the test center?

Food and drink are not permitted in the testing room. Some test centers have storage areas or lockers where you may store personal items such as food, drink, handbags and study materials, however, not all do. The testing center is not responsible for your belongings.

What identification will I need to show on test day?

View the Identification (ID) Requirements for Praxis tests.

What can I bring into the test center?

Personal items such as handbags, water bottles, study materials and scrap paper cannot be brought into the testing center. Please also note that all cell phones, smart phones (e.g., BlackBerry® devices, iPhones®, etc), PDAs and other electronic, photographic, scanning, recording and listening devices are strictly prohibited from the test center. If you are seen with such a device, you will be dismissed from the test, your test scores from all tests taken that day will be cancelled and you will forfeit your test fees. If you are seen ACCESSING such a device for ANY reason, in addition to the above conditions, the device will be confiscated and inspected. For more information, see What to Bring on test day.

Scores

What are the score requirements for my state?

ETS does not set passing scores for the tests. States, institutions and associations that require the tests set their own passing scores. The most up-to-date score requirement information is located on the State Requirements page.

How are passing scores set and validated? Why do scores differ across states?

Before passing scores are set, each state that uses a Praxis™ test undertakes a validation process and sets standards. Panels of teachers and teacher educators, appointed by each state, review the tests to confirm that they are aligned with state licensing requirements. The panel members also make judgments regarding the difficulty of the questions for beginning teachers. Each state uses those judgments in setting its respective passing scores. Because each state may have slightly different licensing standards and requirements, the scores will vary from one state to another.

How do I know if I passed the test?

You will receive passing score information on your score report for the score recipients you listed when you registered. If you test in a state with automatic score reporting, you will receive passing score information for that state.

A list of states and their passing scores will be included with your score report and is available online at State Requirements.

How long will it take to receive my scores?

Scores for computer-delivered tests will be available 10–15 business days after the testing window closes.

Scores for paper-delivered tests will be available within four weeks after the test date. See the Test Dates and Deadlines calendar for exact score reporting dates.

Can I access my scores on the Web?

All test takers will access their test scores via their Praxis account. This service is free of charge and will replace the mailing of a paper score report.

The process is easy — simply log into your Praxis account and click on your score report. If you do not already have a Praxis account, you must create one in order to view your scores.

You will be able to view, print and download your scores for one year from the score report date. We recommend that you save a copy of your score report for future reference.

How do I order additional score reports?

You can order Additional Score Reports (ASR) online, by mail, phone or fax. Sign in or create an account and click the "Order Score Reports" link from your home page. Each score report request costs $40.

Why are scores reported after the registration deadline has passed for the upcoming paper-delivered test date?

Some registration deadlines (for paper-delivered tests) overlap with some score reporting dates because ETS offers the tests several times a year. Because of the overlapping deadlines, candidates may register for the test before knowing the results of a prior test. Candidates who register for a test before knowing the results of a prior test automatically receive a refund of their test and surcharge fees if they receive a passing score for that test. To receive a refund, the test codes must be the same on each registration. Test dates, registration deadlines and score reporting dates for the entire academic year are available on the Test Dates and Deadlines table.

Who gets a copy of my score report and will my score report automatically be sent to the state in which I am seeking certification or licensure?

Scores are sent to you and to the institutions or agencies that you have designated on the registration form. Some states are automatic score recipients.

Scores are automatically reported to the state Department of Education in Alabama, Alaska, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia and Wyoming.

If the state you test in is different from the state to which you will apply for certification, or if the state is not on the automatic score recipient list, you must list the state as a score recipient in order for a score report to be sent to the state's teacher credentialing agency.

Does the institution where I obtained my teacher training automatically receive a copy of my individual score report?

No. An institution can only receive individual score reports if (a), it has been approved by ETS as a "designated score recipient," and (b), you have selected the institution to receive a copy of your score report.

What's the difference between raw and scaled scores?

Most of The Praxis Series assessments exist in several different editions. Different editions contain different questions intended to measure the same general types of knowledge or skills.

There is no way to guarantee that the questions on all editions of the test will have the same precise degree of difficulty. Therefore, to avoid penalizing test takers who answer more difficult questions, the initial scores are adjusted for difficulty by using a statistical process known as equating.

To avoid confusion between the adjusted and unadjusted scores, ETS reports the adjusted scores on a score scale that makes them clearly different from the unadjusted scores.

Unadjusted scores, which are simply the number of questions answered correctly, are called "raw scores."

Adjusted scores, which are equated to the scale we use for reporting the scores, are called "scaled scores." For each edition of the Praxis tests, a "raw-to-scale conversion table" is used to translate raw scores to scaled scores. The easier the questions are on a test edition, the more questions must be answered correctly to earn a given scaled score.

ETS Recognition of Excellence Award

What is the ETS Recognition of Excellence Program?

The ETS Recognition of Excellence (ROE) Award is a way to acknowledge teacher candidates who demonstrate a high level of proficiency on Praxis content knowledge assessments. We also hope it will serve as an incentive for prospective teachers to prepare more effectively for these important tests. Learn more about the ETS Recognition of Excellence Award.

How does a teacher candidate qualify for the ROE?

Teacher candidates who meet or exceed the ROE target score on any of eight Praxis II tests will automatically receive the Recognition of Excellence. The target score for each test is the scaled score earned by the top 15 percent of candidates nationwide who took the test in previous years. Teacher candidates may take more than one Praxis content test and, consequently, may earn the ROE in more than one content area.

What do ROE awardees receive for their accomplishment?

Teacher candidates earning the ROE will receive a congratulatory letter and recognition certificate from ETS acknowledging their high score on the Praxis test. The award is noted on their score reports and summary award data will be included on reports sent to institutions of higher education and state agencies.

If a candidate earned the target score on an applicable test before September 2003, can they still receive the ROE?

Examinees who earned an ROE-worthy score on a test administered between September 1998 and September 2003 may request a Recognition of Excellence certificate for a $25 processing fee. Additional score reports ordered for tests taken during this time period will also indicate the ROE.

Why is the ROE only available for scores earned since September 1998?

ETS has defined the ROE requirements based on scores earned on Praxis tests since March 1998. ETS's tests are continuously updated to align with changing state licensure standards, and states typically accept scores for up to five years. To ensure that the target scores are appropriate given current standards and state requirements, ETS used the five-year period from March 1998 to March 2003 as a basis for defining the target scores.

Should the ROE be used by states or schools in making licensure or hiring decisions?

ETS's Recognition of Excellence Program honors outstanding individual performance on Praxis content tests. The ROE is intended as a professional honor for teacher candidates — similar to the Dean's list in college. It is not a substitute for passing scores used in teacher licensure decisions nor should it be used as a criterion in hiring decisions.

Why are only eight of the Praxis II tests eligible for the ROE?

The eight tests included in the ROE program were selected because they cover subject areas and pedagogy skills that are considered fundamental by most of the states that utilize Praxis scores as a licensure requirement.

When will the recipients of the award be notified?

Recipients will be notified once score reports are issued, approximately four weeks following a test administration.

 

 

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