Fairness and Validity
With ETS tests, you can be assured that the scores you receive present an accurate picture of a candidate's knowledge and skills, without any bias. As part of our mission to help advance quality and equity in education by providing fair and valid assessments, we put our test questions through a rigorous review process.
Fairness Review Guidelines are used in test development to minimize bias and other characteristics that might hinder some test takers from performing at levels that allow appropriate inferences about their relevant knowledge and skills.
- ETS Standards for Quality & Fairness — Helps ETS design, develop and deliver technically sound, fair and useful products and services.
- Why and How ETS Questions Test Scores — Explains why and how ETS questions test scores when concerns arise about their accuracy or validity.
- Constructed-Response and Other Performance Assessments — Presents guidelines to assist ETS test development expert staff in accumulating validity evidence for performance assessments.
- A DIF Primer — Explains what Differential Item Functioning is as well as how it is used by ETS to help ensure the fairness of tests.
- Validity for Licensing Tests
- Proper Use of The Praxis Series™ and Related Assessments
- The Praxis™ Technical Manual
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