Measuring Achievement: What Does It Mean to Test for Robust Understanding?

Shepard, Lorrie A.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
Document Type:
Subject/Key Words:
Classroom assessment performance assessment test bias teaching the test large-scale assessment


The third William H. Angoff Memorial Lecture examines the challenges of assessing student understanding. How do we find out what students really know and can do? While supplies last, print copies can be ordered from the Policy Information Center for $10.50.

Read More


Find a Publication

Advanced Search

Closing the Achievement Gap

Closing the Achievement GapLearn more about ETS's commitment to closing the achievement gap through rigorous research, thought-provoking forums and more.