TOEFL® 2000 Writing Framework: A Working Paper

Cumming, Alister; Kantor, Robert; Powers, Donald; Santos, Terry; Taylor, Carol
Publication Year:
Report Number:
RM-00-05, TOEFL-MS-18
Document Type:
Subject/Key Words:
Communicative competence writing proficiency writing for academic purposes reader-writer model scoring methods


This paper builds on TOEFL® 2000 Framework: A Working Paper (Jamieson, Jones, Kirsch, Mosenthal, & Taylor, 2000) by setting out a preliminary working framework for the development of the writing assessment component of the TOEFL 2000 test. The monograph is organized into four major parts. The first presents a conception of writing proficiency and focuses in particular on academic writing—the domain of the TOEFL 2000 test. The second part presents an initial writing framework for the test; it reviews the test domain, proposes an organizational scheme, and identifies the task variables of interest. The third section lays out an initial research agenda for establishing the validity of interpretations and the appropriateness of action that would result from the introduction of writing measures growing out of this framework and approach to test design. The paper concludes with a discussion of the important ways in which the TOEFL 2000 approach to testing writing is intended to improve on its predecessors.

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