The Effects of Notetaking, Lecture Length and Topic on the Listening Component of the TOEFL® 2000 Test

Carrell, Patricia L.; Dunkel, Patricia A; Mollaun, Pamela
Publication Year:
Report Number:
RM-02-04, TOEFL-MS-23
Document Type:
Subject/Key Words:
Listening comprehension notetaking lecture length topic short-term memory


The present study examined the effects of notetaking, lecture length, and topic, as well as two aptitude variables on listening comprehension with ESL students representative of the TOEFL® population. A total of 234 ESL students at five participating universities in the United States took a computer-based listening comprehension test, a short-term memory test, the listening comprehension section of a disclosed Institutional (paper-and-pencil) TOEFL test, a debriefing questionnaire, and a biodata questionnaire. Results revealed positive effects for notetaking and lecture length, as well as significant interactions between notetaking and topic, and between notetaking and lecture length. No differences in the pattern of results occurred when listening comprehension proficiency and short-term memory were taken into consideration with the three main factors.

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