Washback in Language Testing

Bailey, Kathleen M.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
RM-99-04, TOEFL-MS-15
Document Type:
Subject/Key Words:
English second language language teachers language tests teaching methods washback effect [testing]


This monograph summarizes recent research on language testing washback. It begins by compiling several definitions of washback and related constructs. It then poses a model of language testing washback and examines the available research related to this model. The monograph concludes with recommendations for appropriate research methods to be used in future investigations of washback.

Read More


Find a Publication

Advanced Search

Closing the Achievement Gap

Closing the Achievement GapLearn more about ETS's commitment to closing the achievement gap through rigorous research, thought-provoking forums and more.