The Impact of Changes in the TOEFL® Examination on Teaching and Learning in Central and Eastern Europe: Phase 1, The Baseline Study

Wall, Dianne; Horák, Tania
Publication Year:
Report Number:
RR-06-18, TOEFL-MS-34
Document Type:
Subject/Key Words:
TOEFL Test of English as a Foreign Language™ impact washback backwash baseline study innovation test preparation English for academic purposes Central Europe Eastern Europe


The purpose of this report is to present the findings of the first phase in a longitudinal study of the impact of changes in the TOEFL® test on teaching and learning in test preparation classrooms. Observations were carried out and interviews conducted with teachers, students, and directors of studies at 10 institutions in six countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The findings constitute a baseline against which finding from future phases can be compared. The report includes an analysis of the types of impact originally envisaged by advisers to the new TOEFL and a discussion of factors in the educational context that may influence the types of impact that may appear once the new test is operational.

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