Linking English-Language Test Scores Onto the Common European Framework of Reference: An Application of Standard-Setting Methodology

Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Wylie, E. Caroline
Publication Year:
Report Number:
RR-08-34, TOEFLiBT-06
Document Type:
Subject/Key Words:
English-language tests TOEFL TOEIC TOEIC Bridge test Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) standard setting


The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) describes language proficiency in reading, writing, speaking, and listening on a 6-level scale. In this study, English-language experts from across Europe linked CEFR levels to scores on three tests: the TOEFL® iBT test, the TOEIC® assessment, and the TOEIC Bridge™ test. Standard-setting methodology (a modified Angoff approach and a modified examinee paper selection approach) was used to construct the linkages. Linkages were established for TOEFL iBT at levels B1, B2, and C1. Linkages were established for TOEIC at levels A1 through C1, with the exception of Reading at the C1 level. The TOEIC Bridge test was linked to its three targeted levels of the CEFR. The report details the methods, procedures, and results of the study.

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