An Evaluation of Alternative Item Formats for the TOEFL® Test

Pike, Lewis W.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
RR-79-06, TOEFL-RR-02
Document Type:
Subject/Key Words:
English tests foreign language tests test construction


This report, which results from an extensive study undertaken between 1972 and 1974, examines the effectiveness of items then used for the TOEFL® test (Test of English as a Foreign Language™) in relationship to various other item types widely used in assessing English proficiency. The study included multiple-choice item types not used in the TOEFL test as well as such open-ended formats as cloze tests, essays, and oral interviews. Results of the study contributed in part to realignment of the items used in the TOEFL test and to the change from a five-section to a three-section test.

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