A Study of the Effects of Item Option Rearrangement on the Listening Comprehension Section of the TOEFL® Test

Golub-Smith, Marna L.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
RR-87-17, TOEFL-RR-24
Document Type:
Subject/Key Words:
Item analysis listening comprehension test construction test items


The study was conducted to provide information for the TOEFL® program about the effects of option rearrangement as a means of increasing test security during administrations of the listening comprehension section of the TOEFL test. Two forms, consisting of items whose options were systematically scrambled, were spiraled together with the base versions during the pretesting phase of test development. The results indicated that scrambling an item's options does produce differences in both the estimated item response functions and equating functions. Therefore, it was recommended that this procedure not be adopted for the operational program.

Read More


Find a Publication

Advanced Search

Closing the Achievement Gap

Closing the Achievement GapLearn more about ETS's commitment to closing the achievement gap through rigorous research, thought-provoking forums and more.