Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the TOEFL® Test

Hale, Gordon A.; Rock, Donald A.; Jirele, Thomas J.
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English as a second language factor analysis listening comprehension


In a recent study, confirmatory factor analyses indicated that, for each of several language groups, TOEFL® performance can be characterized by two factors, associated with (a) the Listening Comprehension section and (b) the other sections of the test (Hale, Stansfield, Rock, Hicks, Butler, & Oller, 1988). This conclusion was inconsistent with that drawn in the most comprehensive previous factor-analytic study of the TOEFL test, which suggested a three-factor solution for each of several languages (Swinton & Powers, 1980). The present study investigated the inconsistency in conclusions drawn from these two studies and provided further information about the factor structure of the TOEFL test.


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