Writing Assessment in Admission to Higher Education: Review and Framework

Breland, Hunter M.; Bridgeman, Brent.; Fowles, Mary E.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
CBR-99-03 / GREB-96-12R
Document Type:
Subject/Key Words:
American College Testing Program California State Universities and Colleges (CSUC) Testing Pro group differences higher education Law School Admission Test literature reviews Medical College Admission Test predictive validity test reliability Test of English as a Foreign Language testing writing research writing tests


A comprehensive review was conducted of writing research literature and writing test program activities in a number of testing programs. The review was limited to writing assessments used for admission in higher education. Programs reviewed included ACT, Inc.'s ACT program, the California State Universities and Colleges (CSUC) testing program, the College Board's SAT program, the Graduate Management Admissions Test (GMAT) program, the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) test program, the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) program, the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) program, and the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) testing program. Particular attention was given in the review to writing constructs, fairness and group differences, test reliability, and predictive validity. A number of recommendations are made for research on writing assessment.

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