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Disability Research — Publication Archive

Below is a collection of research by ETS assessing people with disabilities.

Design
  • Evaluation of a Condition-Adaptive Test of Reading Comprehension for Students with Reading-Based Learning Disabilities
    E. Stone, L. Cook, & C. C. Laitusis (2013)
    ETS Research Report RR-13-20
  • Evidence-Centered Design for Learning
    E. G. Hansen (2011)
    ETS Research Memorandum RM-11-02
  • Design Patterns for Improving Accessibility for Test Takers with Disabilities
    R. J. Mislevy & E. G. Hansen (2008)
    ETS Research Report RR-08-49
  • Evidence-Centered Assessment Design for Reasoning About Accommodations for Individuals with Disabilities in NAEP Reading and Mathematics
    L. S. Steinberg, E. G. Hansen, & R. J. Mislevy (2008)
    ETS Research Report RR-08-38
  • An Assessment for Learning System Called ACED: Designing for Learning Effectiveness and Accessibility
    R. G. Almond, V. J. Shute, & E. G. Hansen (2007)
    ETS Research Report RR-07-26
  • Evidence-Based Approach to Interacting with Open Student Models
    E. G. Hansen, M. I. Bauer, J. S. Underwood, V. J. Shute, & D. Zapata-Rivera (2007)
    International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 17, 273–303
  • Research Designs and Analysis for Studying Accommodations on Assessments
    C. C. Laitusis (2007)
    In C. C. Laitusis & L. Cook (Eds.) Large-Scale Assessment and Accommodations: What Works? Arlington, Virginia: Council for Exceptional Children
  • Designing Adaptive, Diagnostic Math Assessments for Sighted and Visually Disabled Students
    V. J. Shute, E. A. Graf, & E. G. Hansen (2006)
    ETS Research Report RR-06-01
  • Accessibility of Tests for Individuals with Disabilities within a Validity Framework
    E. G. Hansen, R. J. Mislevy, L. S. Steinberg, M. J. Lee, & D. C. Forer (2005)
    System: An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 33(1), 107-133
  • A Job Analysis of the Knowledge and Skills Important for Newly Licensed (Certified) Teachers of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
    M. Rosenfeld, J. L. Mounty, & M. E. Ehringhaus (1995)
    ETS Research Report RR-95-9
Accommodations
  • Literature Review of Testing Accommodations and Accessibility Tools for Students with Disabilities
    C. C. Laitusis, H. M. Buzick, E. Stone, E. G. Hansen, & M. T. Hakkinen (2012)
    Accommodations and Accessibility Tools. Commissioned Report for the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium
  • Measuring Cognition of Students with Disabilities Using Technology-Enabled Assessments: Recommendations for a National Research Agenda
    S. Bechard, J. Sheinker, R. Abell, K. Barton, K. Burling, C. Camacho, R. Cameto, G. Haertel, E. Hansen, C. Johnstone, N. Kingston, E. Murray, C. E. Parker, D. Redfield, & B. Tucker (2010)
    Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 10(4)
  • Examining the Impact of Audio Presentation on Tests of Reading Comprehension
    C. C. Laitusis (2010)
    Applied Measurement in Education, Vol. 23, pp. 153–167
  • Examining the Impact of Audio Presentation on Tests of Reading Comprehension
    C. C. Laitusis, F. Cline, J. Sabatini, L. Cook, & T. King (2008)
    ETS Research Report RR-08-23
  • Reading Aloud as an Accommodation for a Test of Reading Comprehension
    C. C. Laitusis & L. Cook (2008)
    ETS Research Spotlight No. 1, February 2008
  • Misconceptions Regarding Accommodations on High-Stakes Tests: Recommendations for Preparing Disability Documentation for Test Takers with Learning Disabilities
    L. Brinckerhoff & M. Banerjee (2007)
    Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, Vol. 22, pp. 246–255
  • Time Requirements for the Different Item Types Proposed for Use in the Revised SAT
    B. Bridgeman, C. C. Laitusis, & F. Cline (2007)
    ETS Research Report RR-07-35
  • Large-Scale Assessment and Accommodations: What Works?
    L. Cook & C. C. Laitusis (2007)
    Arlington, Virginia: Council for Exceptional Children
  • Examination of Fatigue Effects from Extended Time Accommodations on the SAT I: Reasoning Test
    C. C. Laitusis, D. Morgan, B. Bridgeman, J. Zanna, & E. Stone (2007)
    College Board Report No. 2007-31
  • Assessment Accommodations: What Have We Learned from Research?
    M. Pitonak & S. Sireci (2007)
    In L. Cook & C. C. Laitusis (Eds.) Large-Scale Assessment and Accommodations: What Works?
  • Accommodation Decisions Based on an Accommodations Assessment
    C. C. Laitusis (2006)
    ETS Research Memorandum No. 06-02
  • Observational Timing Study on the SAT Reasoning Test for Test-Takers with Learning Disability and/or AD/HD
    C. C. Laitusis, T. C. King, F. Cline, & B. Bridgeman (2006)
    College Entrance Examination Board Research Report 2006-4
  • The Impact of Extended Time on SAT I Reasoning Test Performance for Students with and without Learning Disabilities
    E. B. Mandinach, B. Bridgeman, C. Cahalan, & C. Trapani (2005)
    College Board Report 2005-8
  • Accommodations on High-Stakes Writing Tests for Students with Disabilities
    C. C. Laitusis (2004)
    ETS Research Report RR-04-13
  • The Impact of Flagging on the Admissions Process: Policies, Practices, and Implications
    E. Mandinach, C. Cahalan, & W. Camara (2002)
    College Board Report
  • Testing Accommodations for Examinees with Disabilities: A Review of Psychometric, Legal and Social Policy Issues
    M. J. Pitoniak & J. M. Royer (2001)
    Review of Educational Research, Vol. 71, pp. 53–104
Computer-Based Testing/Computer-Adaptive Testing
  • Evaluation of a Condition-Adaptive Test of Reading Comprehension for Students with Reading-Based Learning Disabilities
    E. Stone, L. Cook, & C. C. Laitusis (2013)
    ETS Research Report RR-13-20
  • Adaptive Testing Options for Accountability Assessments
    C. C. Laitusis, H. M. Buzick, L. Cook, & E. Stone (2011)
    In M. Russell and M. Kavanaugh (Eds.), Assessing Students in the Margin: Challenges, Strategies, and Techniques
  • Computer-Adaptive Testing for Students With Disabilities: A Review of the Literature
    E. Stone & T. Davy (2011)
    ETS Research Report RR 11-32
  • Measuring Cognition of Students with Disabilities Using Technology-Enabled Assessments: Recommendations for a National Research Agenda
    S. Bechard, J. Sheinker, R. Abell, K. Barton, K. Burling, C. Camacho, R. Cameto, G. Haertel, E. Hansen, C. Johnstone, N. Kingston, E. Murray, C. E. Parker, D. Redfield, & B. Tucker (2010)
    Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 10(4)
  • Improving the Accessibility of CBAL™ Reading Tasks: A Focus Group of Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments
    E. G. Hansen, C. C. Laitusis, L. Frankel, & T. King (2010)
    ETS internal memorandum
  • An Assessment-for-Learning System in Mathematics for Individuals with Visual Impairments
    E. G. Hansen, V. J. Shute, & S. Landau (2010)
    Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 104, 275–286
  • Accessibility of Computer-Based Testing for Individuals with Disabilities and English Language Learners within a Validity Framework
    E. G. Hansen & R. J. Mislevy (2006)
    In M. Hricko & S. Howell (Eds.), Online Assessment and Measurement: Foundations and Challenges.
  • Toward Accessible Computer-Based Tests: Prototypes for Visual and Other Disabilities
    E. G. Hansen, D. C. Forer & M. J. Lee (2004)
    TOEFL® Research Report Series: ETS Research Report 78
  • The Application of Microcomputer Technology to Special Education
    R. Bennett (1982)
    Exceptional Children, 49, 106–113
Psychometric Validity
  • Including Students With Disabilities and English Learners in Measures of Educator Effectiveness
    N. D. Jones, H. M. Buzick, & S. Turkan (2013)
    Educational Researcher, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 234–241
  • Recommendations for Conducting Differential Item Functioning (DIF) Analyses for Students With Disabilities Based on Previous DIF Studies
    H. M. Buzick & E. Stone (2011)
    ETS Research Report RR-11-34
  • Examining the Factor Structure of a State Standards-Based Science Assessment for Students with Learning Disabilities
    J. Steinberg, F. Cline, & Y. Sawaki (2011)
    ETS Research Report RR-11-38
  • Using Factor Analysis to Investigate Accommodations Used by Students with Disabilities on English-Language Arts Assessment
    L. Cook, D. Eignor, Y. Sawaki, J. Steinberg, & F. Cline (2010).
    Applied Measurement in Education, 23, 187–208
  • Using Differential Item Functioning to Investigate the Impact of Testing Accommodations on an English-Language Arts Assessment for Students who are Blind or Visually Impaired
    E. Stone, L. Cook, C. C. Laitusis, & F. Cline (2010)
    Applied Measurement in Education, 23, 132–152
  • Using Factor Analysis to Investigate the Impact of Accommodations on the Scores of Students with Disabilities on a Reading Comprehension Assessment
    L. Cook, D. Eignor, J. Steinberg, Y. Sawaki, & F. Cline (2009)
    Journal of Applied Testing Technology
    , 10
  • Differential Item Functioning Comparisons on a Performance-Based Alternate Assessment for Students with Severe Cognitive Impairments, Autism, and Orthopedic Impairments
    C. C. Laitusis, B. Maneckshana, & L. Monfils (2009)
    Journal of Applied Testing Technology, 10
  • Examining the Validity and Fairness of a State Standards-Based Assessment of English-Language Arts for Deaf or Hard of Hearing Students
    J. Steinberg, F. Cline, G. Ling, L. Cook, & N. Tognatta (2009)
    Journal of Applied Testing Technology, 10
  • Choice of Anchor Test in Equating
    S. Sinharay & P. W. Holland (2008)
    ETS Research Spotlight No. 1, February 2008
  • Validating the Use of TOEFL® iBT Speaking Section Scores to Screen and Set Standards for International Teaching Assistants
    X. Xi (2008)
    ETS Research Spotlight No. 1, February 2008
  • Examining Test Items for Differential Distractor Functioning Among Students with Learning Disabilities
    K. Middleton & C. C. Laitusis (2007)
    ETS Research Report RR-07-43
  • The Impact of Flagging on the Admission Process
    C. Cahalan-Laitusis, E. B. Mandinach, & W. J. Camara (2003)
    Journal of College Admission
  • Predictive Validity of SAT I: Reasoning Test for Test Takers with Learning Disabilities and Extended Time Accommodations
    C. Cahalan, E. B. Mandinach, & W. J. Camara (2002)
    New York: College Entrance Examination Board. Research Report 2002-5
  • Eligibility Issues and Comparable Time Limits for Disabled and Nondisabled SAT Examinees
    M. Ragosta & C. Wendler (1992)
    College Board Rep. 92-5
  • Performance and Persistence: A Validity Study of the SAT for Students with Disabilities
    M. Ragosta, H. Braun, & B. Kaplan (1991)
    College Board Report 91-41
  • Differential Item Functioning on the SAT-M Braille Edition
    R. E. Bennett, D. A. Rock, & I. Novatkoski (1989)
    Journal of Educational Measurement, 26, 67–79
  • The Factor Structure of the Graduate Record Examinations General Test in Handicapped and Nonhandicapped Groups
    R. E. Bennett, D. A. Rock, & T. Jirele (1988)
    Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, pp. 383–392
  • Predictive Validity
    H. Braun, M. Ragosta, & B. Kaplan (1988)
    In W. W. Willingham, M. Ragosta, R. E. Bennett, H. Braun, D. A. Rock, & D. E. Powers (Eds.), Testing handicapped people (pp. 109–132). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon
  • Testing Handicapped People
    W. W. Willingham, M. Ragosta, R. E. Bennett, H. Braun, D. A. Rock, & D. E. Powers (1988).
    Boston: Allyn and Bacon
  • GRE Score Level, Test Completion and Reliability for Visually Impaired, Physically Handicapped and Nonhandicapped Groups
    R. E. Bennett, D. A. Rock, & T. Jirele (1987)
    Journal of Special Education, 21, 9–21
  • SAT Differential Item Performance for Nine Handicapped Groups
    R. E. Bennett, D. A. Rock, & B. A. Kaplan (1987)
    Journal of Educational Measurement, 24, 41–55
  • Internal Construct Validity of a College Admissions Test Across Handicapped and Nonhandicapped Groups
    R. E. Bennett, D. A. Rock, & B. A. Kaplan (1987)
    Educational and Psychological Measurement, 47, 193–205
  • Handicapped Applicants to College: An Analysis of Admission Decisions
    W. Willingham (1987)
    College Board Report No. 87-1
  • Technical Characteristics of Postsecondary Admissions Tests for Handicapped Examinees: A Review of Research
    R. E. Bennett & M. Ragosta (1985)
    Journal of Special Education, 19, 255–267
  • Testing Handicapped People: The Validity Issue
    W. Willingham (1985)
    ETS Research Report 86-26
  • Predictive Validity of the SAT on Two Handicapped Groups: The Deaf and the Learning Disabled
    D. H. Jones & M. Ragosta (1982)
    ETS Research Report 82-9
Growth
  • Is Value-Added Accurate for Teachers of Students with Disabilities?
    D. F. McCaffrey & H. M. Buzick (2014)
    Carnegie Knowledge Network
  • A Summary of Applications That Use Student Academic Growth for K-12 Accountability and Implications for Students with Disabilities
    H. M. Buzick & C. C. Laitusis (2011)
    ETS Research Spotlight No. 4, March 2011
  • A Summary of Models and Standards-Based Applications for Grade-to-Grade Growth on Statewide Assessments and Implications for Students with Disabilities
    H. M. Buzick & C. C. Laitusis (2010)
    ETS Research Report RR-10-14
  • Using Growth for Accountability: Measurement Challenges for Students with Disabilities and Recommendations for Research
    H. M. Buzick & C. C. Laitusis (2010)
    Educational Researcher, Vol. 39, pp. 537–544
Assistive Technology
  • Designing Accessible Technology-Enabled Reading Assessments: Recommendations from Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments
    E. G. Hansen, C. C. Laitusis, L. Frankel, & T. King (2012)
    Journal of Blindness Innovation and Research, Vol. 2, No. 2
  • Technology Enhanced Assessments in Mathematics and Beyond: Strengths, Challenges, and Future Directions
    G. A. Cayton-Hodges, E. Marquez, M. Keehner, C. C. Laitusis, P. van Rijn, D. Zapata-Rivera, M. I. Bauer, & M. T. Hakkinen (2012)
    Paper in Invitational Research Symposium on Technology Enhanced Assessment
  • Field-Based Perspectives on Technology Assisted Reading Assessments: Results of an Interview Study with Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments (TVIs)
    C. Johnstone, J. Altman, J. Timmons, M. Thurlow, & C. C. Laitusis (2009)
    Technology Assisted Reading Assessment, pp. 1–22
  • Research on AT Outcomes and Large Scale Assessments
    M. Thurlow, G. Tindal, R. Powers, P. Lewis, C. C. Laitusis, & J. Breslin-Larson (2007)
    Assistive Technology Outcomes and Benefits, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 11–27
Other
  • English Language Learners with Reading Disabilities: A Review of the Literature and the Foundation for a Research Agenda
    J. Shore & J. Sabatini (2009)
    ETS Research Report RR-09-20
  • Leveling the Field on Math and Science Tests for Students with Learning Disabilities
    E. Stone & L. Cook (2009)
    R&D Connections, RDC-12
  • State Reading Assessments and the Inclusion of Students with Dyslexia
    C. C. Laitusis (2008)
    Perspectives on Language and Literacy
  • Including Special-Needs Students in the NAEP 1998 Reading Assessment Part II:
    Results for Students with Disabilities and Limited-English Proficient Students
    A. D. Lutkus, J. Mazzeo, J. Zhang & L. Jerry (2004)
    ETS NAEP Technical and Research Report Series RR-04-R01
  • Including Special-Needs Students in the NAEP 1998 Reading Assessment Part I: Comparison of Overall Results with and without Accommodations
    A. D. Lutkus, J. Mazzeo, & National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, D.C. (2003)
    A Report on 1998 NAEP Research Activities. Statistical Analysis Report
  • Increasing the Participation of Special Needs Students in NAEP: A Report on the 1996 NAEP Research Activities
    J. Mazzeo, J. E. Carlson, K. E. Voelkl, and A. D. Lutkus (2000)
    National Center for Education Statistics (NCES 2000-473)
  • A Transportability Study of the Reading, Writing, and Mathematics Skills Important for Teachers of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
    M. Rosenfeld, J. L. Mounty, & M. E. Ehringhaus (1994)
    ETS Research Report 94-53
  • SAT Verbal-Math Discrepancies: Accurate Indicators of College Learning Disability?
    R. Bennett (1987)
    Journal of Learning Disabilities, 20, 189–192
  • Students with Disabilities: Four Years of Data from Special Test Administrations of the SAT 1980–83
    M. Ragosta (1986)
    New York: College Entrance Examination Board
  • A Survey of Handicapped Students Taking Special Test Administrations of the SAT, and GRE
    M. Ragosta & B. A. Kaplan (1986)
    ETS Research Report 86-5
  • TOEFL and Hearing Impaired Students: A Feasibility Study
    M. Ragosta, & C. Nelson (1986)
    ETS Research Memorandum 86-4
  • A Screening Method for Identifying Racial Overrepresentation in Special Education Placement
    R. E. Bennett, D. H. Jones, & J. Sacks (1985)
    Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 7(1), 19–34
  • Myths and Realities in Automating Special Education Information Management
    R. Bennett (1984)
    Journal of Learning Disabilities, 17, 52–54
  • Research and Evaluation Priorities for Special Education Assessment
    R. Bennett (1983)
    Exceptional Children, 50, 110–117
  • Cautions for the Use of Informal Measures in the Educational Assessment of Exceptional Children
    R. Bennett (1982)
    Journal of Learning Disabilities, 15, 337–339
  • Basic Measurement Proficiency of Learning Disability Specialists
    R. E. Bennett & M. Shepherd (1982)
    Learning Disability Quarterly, 5, 177–184
  • A Research and Development Program on Testing Handicapped People
    M. Ragosta & W. Nemceff (1982)
    ETS Research Memorandum 82-2
  • Professional Competence and the Assessment of Exceptional Children
    R. Bennett (1981)
    Journal of Special Education, 15, 437–446
  • Handicapped Students and the SAT
    M. Ragosta (1980)
    ETS Research Report 80-12

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