English Language Learning and Assessment in
U.S. K–12 Education
Our research scientists and assessment specialists are working with educators, policymakers and other experts across the United States to find ways to advance education for English learners in grades K–12. Our research in this field mainly covers these three areas:
- Assessing the language proficiency of English learners — Our research in this area includes a review of current practices in assessing English proficiency; identifying the essential language skills that English learners need in order to meet the Common Core State Standards; and developing an academic reading comprehension assessment for formative purposes.
- Assessing English learners' content knowledge — In this area, our research focuses on examining content-area assessments (such as mathematics or science) to identify sources of test item difficulty for English learners. Examples of such sources may include cultural references or unnecessary linguistic complexity.
- Teaching English learners — We are conducting research on two aspects of instruction related to English learners: the content and pedagogical knowledge required to teach English learners, and technology-enhanced professional development materials to support teachers of English learners.
Below are some recent or significant publications that our research professionals have authored related to this topic:
- Exploring ELLs' Understanding of Word Problems in Mathematics Assessments: The Role of Text Complexity and Student Background Knowledge
M. Martiniello & M. K. Wolf (2012)
Chapter in Beyond Good Teaching: Strategies that are Imperative for English Language Learners in the Mathematics Classroom, pp. 151–162
Publisher: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
In this book chapter, the authors explore how teachers can help English learners to overcome the background knowledge and reading comprehension issues that could otherwise impact their academic progress in mathematics. Read more on the publisher's website.
- Effective Practices for Developing the Literacy Skills of English Language Learners in the English Language Arts Classroom
S. Turkan, J. Bicknell, & A. Croft (2012)
ETS Research Report No. RR-12-03
This paper is a review of literature presenting instructional strategies — based on normative as well as empirical arguments — which have proven to be effective in envisioning what all teachers need to know and be able to do to teach English language arts (ELA) to English language learners (ELLs). Read more or download the full report.
- Accommodation Practices for English Language Learners in States' Mathematics Assessments
M. K. Wolf, J. C. Kao, N. M. Rivera, & S. M. Chang (2012)
Teachers College Record, Vol. 114
This article describes a study that investigated two states' accommodation policies for English learners in their Grade 8 math assessments and reports teachers' understanding and perceptions of the accommodation policies and uses. Read more or order the full article from the publisher.
- Advancing the Quality and Equity of Education for Latino Students: A White Paper
J. W. Young, J. Lakin, R. Courtney, & M. Martiniello (2012)
ETS Research Report No. RR-12-01
This white paper provides an overview of the issues that affect the quality and equity of education in grades K–16 for Latino students in the United States and highlights the unique challenges Latino students encounter in several transition points in the U.S. educational system. Read more or download the full report.
- Opportunities for Natural Language Processing Research in Education
J. Burstein (2009)
Chapter in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 5449, pp. 6–27
This paper discusses emerging opportunities for natural language processing researchers in the development of educational applications for writing, reading and content knowledge acquisition. Read more or order the report from the publisher.
- Towards Improving Synonym Options in a Text Modification Application
J. Burstein & T. Pedersen (2010)
University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute
Research Report Series Report No. UMSI 2010/165
This paper describes a study that investigated methods of improving the synonym detection feature of the Language Muse™ System that supports classroom teachers in text modification for English learners at the middle- and high-school levels. Download the full report.
- Linguistic Complexity, Schematic Representations, and Differential Item Functioning for English Language Learners in Math Tests
M. Martiniello (2009)
Educational Assessment, Vol. 14, No. 3–4, pp. 160–179
This article describes a study of nonmathematical linguistic complexity as a source of differential item functioning in a Grade 4 math test and suggests that schematic representations may help English learners better understand the math word problems. Read more or order this article from the publisher.
- Guidelines for the Assessment of English Language Learners
M. J. Pitoniak, J. W. Young, M. Martiniello, T. C. King, A. Buteux, & M. Ginsburgh (2009)
The guidelines in this document are designed to be of use to test developers, testing program administrators, psychometricians and educational agencies as they work to ensure that assessments are fair and valid for English learners. Download the guidelines.
- An Investigation of the Language Demands in Content Assessments for English Language Learners
M. K. Wolf & S. Leon (2009)
Educational Assessment, Vol. 14, No. 3–4, pp. 139–159
This article describes a study of the language characteristics of large-scale assessments of mathematics and science. The researchers investigated whether language demands of test items are associated with the degree of differential item functioning for English learners. Read more or order this article from the publisher.
- A Framework for Test Validity Research on Content Assessments Taken by English Language Learners
J. W. Young (2009)
Educational Assessment, Vol. 14, No. 3–4, pp. 122–138
This article describes a conceptual framework for validity research on content assessments taken by English learners in U.S. K–12 schools. The author discusses indicators of test comparability and research needed for evaluating the comparability of content assessments for English learners. Read more or order this article from the publisher.
- Score Comparability for Language Minority Students on the Content Assessments Used by Two States
J. W. Young, S. Holtzman, & J. Steinberg (2011)
ETS Research Report No. RR-11-27
This report describes an investigation of score comparability for English learners on the content assessments in English-language arts and math in two states. A high degree of score comparability was found for both states' content assessments. Read more or download the full report.
- Examining the Validity of Standards-Based Assessments for Initially Fluent Students and Former English Language Learners
J. W. Young, J. Steinberg, F. Cline, E. Stone, M. Martiniello, G. Ling, & Y. Cho (2010)
Educational Assessment, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 87–106
This article describes a validity study of several standards-based assessments in mathematics and science for students classified as “initially fluent” or as former English learners. Moderate to high degrees of score comparability among these students and native English speakers were observed. Read more or order this article from the publisher.
Find a Publication
Learn more in this brief interview with Xiaoming Xi, Senior Research Scientist at ETS (Flash, 3:06).