About the Authors

Richard J. Coley

Richard J. Coley is Executive Director of the ETS Center for Research on Human Capital and Education. His recent work has focused on the achievement gap and on the factors that are associated with the gap, as well as on tracking and analyzing national trends in student performance and educational attainment. He has been involved in studies of federal, state and local education policy issues, including studies of school finance and governance, teacher education and certification, educational standards, education indicators and education reform. Recent publications include: State Pre-K Assessment Policies: Issues and Status; The Mission of the High School: A New Consensus of the Purposes of Public Education?; The Black-White Achievement Gap: When Progress Stopped; Parsing the Achievement Gap; and The Family: America's Smallest School.

Andrew M. Sum

Andrew M. Sum is a professor of economics at Northeastern University and the Director of the Center for Labor Market Studies in Boston. He has conducted research on a wide array of educational, labor market, social and workforce development topics at the national, state and local level for the past 40 years. He also has been engaged in research on the educational, civic, social and labor market experiences of the nation's teens, young adults, older workers and blue-collar workers, and their implications for educational and labor market policies. Among his recent articles and policy monographs are: "Ignoring Those Left Behind in the Labor Market," Challenge, March-April, 2012; Resurrecting the American Dream in Massachusetts, The Massachusetts Institute for A New Commonwealth (MassINC), 2011; "No Country for Young Men: The Declining Economic Status of Less Educated Young Men," The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 2011; The Vanishing Teen Labor Market, Mott Foundation, 2010; The Perfect Storm, Educational Testing Service, 2008; An Assessment of the Labor Market, Income, Social, Health, Civic, Incarceration, and Fiscal Consequences of Dropping Out of High School: Findings for Michigan Adults in the 21st Century, January 2008; Mass Economy: the Labor Supply and Our Economic Future, MassINC, December 2006.