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TOEFL® Research Topics

Browse recent TOEFL® research appearing in independent and ETS-published works in areas such as these:

  • Designing the TOEFL iBT® Test — Reports on the frameworks and foundational research that were used to design the TOEFL iBT test
  • Validity Evidence — Studies into the relationship among the TOEFL test’s target skills, its construct representation, its criterion-related and predictive validity, its authenticity and content validity, and its consequential validity
  • Fairness and Accessibility — Research into the impact of characteristics of TOEFL test takers on test performance and other fairness issues
  • Scoring and Technology — Investigations in areas related to the processes that human raters use to score free-response items (such as essays and speech) on the TOEFL iBT test, to general issues in scoring all sections of the TOEFL iBT test and to the development of automated scoring tools
  • Reliability and Generalizability — Reports on TOEFL test scores’ consistency across such variables as raters, test tasks and test forms
  • Score Interpretation — Studies to support the use of TOEFL iBT scores to make inferences about what test takers know and can do


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