angle-up angle-right angle-down angle-left close user menu open menu closed search globe bars phone store

TOEFL® Research Insight Series

The TOEFL® Research Insight Series is a set of publications that present important TOEFL research in an everyday, easy-to-understand format. The purpose of this series is to communicate the strong base of research and development underlying the TOEFL test and to demonstrate our strong, continued commitment to research.

These reports are intended for all institutions and English teachers who use TOEFL test scores.

Vol. 1: TOEFL iBT® Test Framework and Test Development

This volume provides a broad overview of the purpose, structure, contents, development, scoring and item review processes of the TOEFL iBT® test, the world's most widely respected English-language assessment.

Read more about Vol. 1: TOEFL iBT Test Framework and Test Development

Vol. 2: TOEFL Research

This volume introduces readers to how TOEFL® research is conducted both by ETS research staff and externally by the global academic community through the TOEFL COE research program. Also included are accessible summaries of TOEFL research that has already been published in the areas of test fairness and automated scoring.

Read more about Vol. 2: TOEFL Research

Vol. 3: Reliability and Comparability of TOEFL iBT Scores

This volume provides an introduction for nonexperts to the key assessment concept of reliability, describing areas of practice that ETS uses to ensure that TOEFL iBT scores are reliable and comparable across forms.

Read more about Vol. 3: Reliability and Comparability of TOEFL iBT Scores

Vol. 4: Validity Evidence Supporting the Interpretation and Use of TOEFL iBT Scores

This volume introduces the central notion of score validity and presents the validity argument for the TOEFL iBT test, including summaries of research investigating key test claims.

Read more about Vol. 4: Validity Evidence Supporting the Interpretation and Use of TOEFL iBT Scores

Vol. 5: Information for Score Users, Teachers and Learners

This volume presents critical information for TOEFL iBT stakeholders, including appropriate score use guidelines, different options for institutions receiving TOEFL iBT scores, and descriptions of a variety of services and materials that ETS makes available to assist score users. Free and paid resources available to teachers and learners preparing for the TOEFL iBT test are also introduced.

Read more about Vol. 5: Information for Score Users, Teachers and Learners

Vol. 6: TOEFL Program History

This volume presents the history of the TOEFL program, tracing its origins in the 1960s, its evolution through multiple iterations and technological innovations, and finally the expanding TOEFL Family of Assessments (including the TOEFL Paper-based Test, TOEFL ITP, TOEFL Junior® and TOEFL® Primary tests).

Read more about Vol. 6: TOEFL Program History

Vol. 7: TOEFL Junior® Framework and Test Development

This volume provides a broad overview of the purpose, structure, contents, development, scoring and item review processes of the TOEFL Junior® tests. The TOEFL Junior tests are part of the TOEFL Family of Assessments and intended for students ages 11 and above.

Read more about Vol. 7: TOEFL Junior Framework and Test Development

Vol. 8: TOEFL Primary® Framework and Test Development

This volume provides a broad overview of the purpose, structure, contents, development, scoring and item review processes of the TOEFL Primary® tests. The TOEFL Primary tests are part of the TOEFL Family of Assessments and intended for students ages 8 and above.

Read more about Vol. 8: TOEFL Primary Framework and Test Development