Section 2 — Structure and Written Expression

This section is designed to measure your ability to recognize language that is appropriate for standard written English. There are two types of questions in this section, with special directions for each type.

Structure

Directions: Questions 1–4 are incomplete sentences. Beneath each sentence you will see four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.

Look at the following examples:

Example Ianswer sheet graphic, b filled in

Geysers have often been compared to volcanoes _______ they both emit hot liquids from below the Earth's surface.

  1. due to
  2. because
  3. in spite of
  4. regardless of

The sentence should read, "Geysers have often been compared to volcanoes because they both emit hot liquids from below the Earth's surface." Therefore, you should choose answer B.

Example IIanswer sheet graphic, d filled in

During the early period of ocean navigation, ________ any need for sophisticated instruments and techniques.

  1. so that hardly
  2. where there hardly was
  3. hardly was
  4. there was hardly

The sentence should read, "During the early period of ocean navigation, there was hardly any need for sophisticated instruments and techniques." Therefore, you should choose answer D.

Now begin work on the questions.

Practice Questions

  1. Refrigerating meats ________ the spread of bacteria.
    1. retards
    2. retarding
    3. to retard
    4. is retarded
  2. Throughout the animal kingdom, ________ bigger than the elephant.
    1. whale is only the
    2. only the whale is
    3. is the whale only
    4. only whale is the
  3. The fact ________ money orders can usually be easily cashed has made them a popular form of payment.
    1. of
    2. that
    3. is that
    4. which is
  4. The first article of the United States Constitution gives Congress ________ to pass laws.
    1. the power
    2. has the power
    3. the power is
    4. of the power

Written Expression

Directions: In questions 5–10, each sentence has four underlined words or phrases. The four underlined parts of the sentence are marked A, B, C and D. Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be correct. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.

Look at the following examples:

test question example 1

The sentence should read, "Guppies are sometimes called rainbow fish because of the males' bright colors." Therefore, you should choose answer A.

test question example 2

The sentence should read, "Serving several terms in Congress, Shirley Chisholm became an important United States politician." Therefore, you should choose answer B.

Now begin work on the questions.

Practice Questions

test question example 3

Answer Key for TOEFL ITP Structure and Written Expression

  1. A
  2. B
  3. B
  4. A
  5. C
  6. A
  7. A
  8. C
  9. D
  10. D

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