Research

Backed by 45 Years of Expert Research

The TOEFL ITP® Assessment Series is backed by more than 45 years of research by world-renowned assessment and linguistic experts. As the world's leading on-site English-proficiency testing program, the TOEFL ITP tests are relied upon by more than 2,500 institutions in 47 countries, with 600,000+ tests administered annually.

CEFR Mapping Study

The purpose of this mapping study was to identify the minimum TOEFL ITP Level 1 test scores corresponding to four levels of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR).

The table below presents the scaled cut scores for each section:

Total minimum
TOEFL ITP scores (Level 1–310 to 677 pts)
CEFR Levels CEFR General Descriptions
627 C1
Proficient User — Effective Operational Proficiency
Can understand a wide range of demanding, longer texts, and recognise implicit meaning. Can express him/herself fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions. Can use language flexibly and effectively for social, academic and professional purposes. Can produce clear, well-structured, detailed text on complex subjects, showing controlled use of organisational patterns, connectors and cohesive devices.
543 B2
Independent User — Vantage
Can understand the main ideas of complex text on both concrete and abstract topics, including technical discussions in his/her field of specialisation. Can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without strain for either party. Can produce clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options.
460 B1
Independent User — Threshold
Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc. Can deal with most situations likely to arise whilst travelling in an area where the language is spoken. Can produce simple connected text on topics which are familiar or of personal interest. Can describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes and ambitions and briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions and plans.
337 A2
Basic User — Waystage
Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance (e.g., very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment). Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar and routine matters. Can describe in simple terms aspects of his/her background, immediate environment and matters in areas of immediate need.

Note: The cut scores represent the minimum scores needed to enter the CEFR levels. These recommendations are based on the results of mapping studies with expert panels, and data analyses of test taker scores.

Award Your Students a Certificate That Recognizes Their Achievement

You can recognize your students' achievement in English-language proficiency with three levels of certificates awarded by the TOEFL ITP program. Each TOEFL ITP certificate corresponds to a CEFR level.

TOEFL ITP Certificate CEFR Level
Gold C1
Silver B2
Bronze B1

Reliability Study

Reliability is an important criterion to measure the quality of an assessment product. Tests with high reliability yield consistent scores across different test forms. Please refer to the TOEFL ITP reliability table for further details.

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