Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR)
TOEFL Junior® scores are mapped to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) so you can use them for international benchmarking of your students' English proficiency levels.
The CEFR is a widely-used tool for understanding different stages of language learning. It covers six proficiency levels: A1, A2, B1, B2, C1 and C2, with C2 being the highest level. The performance descriptors for each section of the TOEFL Junior tests are adapted from the CEFR level descriptors to reflect the TOEFL Junior test content and the age range of the test takers. A CEFR profile is given with each overall score level. The CEFR profile is what a student would typically receive for each section-level CEFR score.
Section Score Levels
The revised recommended TOEFL Junior Standard cut scores for CEFR Levels A2, B1 and B2 are shown below, as of October 2012:
|Sections||CEFR Level Below A2||CEFR Level A2||CEFR Level B1||CEFR Level B2|
|Listening Comprehension||Under 225||225–245||250–285||290–300|
|Language Form and Meaning||Under 210||210–245||250–275||280–300|
|Reading Comprehension||Under 210||210–240||245–275||280–300|
CEFR Mapping Studies
In 2010, a standard-setting study was conducted by ETS researchers to map TOEFL Junior Standard test scores to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR). The purpose of the study was to provide policymakers with recommended minimum scale scores (cut scores) for the Listening Comprehension, Language Form and Meaning, and Reading Comprehension sections. Because the TOEFL Junior test is available in two testing modes, the TOEFL Junior Standard test (paper-based) and the TOEFL Junior Comprehensive test (computer-based), which differ in the number of language skills they measure, a second mapping study was conducted in 2012 to identify the minimum scores on the TOEFL Junior Comprehensive test that correspond to each level of the CEFR. Further research was also conducted employing equipercentile equating of the Reading and Listening measures of the TOEFL Junior Comprehensive test to their corresponding TOEFL Junior Standard scores. These additional studies allow ETS to align the test scores and the CEFR cut scores for both TOEFL Junior tests.
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