Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR)

TOEFL Junior® scores are mapped to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) so you can use them for international benchmarking of your students' English proficiency levels.

The CEFR is a widely-used tool for understanding different stages of language learning. It covers six proficiency levels: A1, A2, B1, B2, C1 and C2, with C2 being the highest level. The performance descriptors for each section of the TOEFL Junior tests are adapted from the CEFR level descriptors to reflect the TOEFL Junior test content and the age range of the test takers. A CEFR profile is given with each overall score level. The CEFR profile is what a student would typically receive for each section-level CEFR score.

Section Score Levels

The table below shows the TOEFL Junior Standard scores for the Listening Comprehension, Language Form and Meaning, and Reading Comprehension sections mapped to their respective CEFR levels. The possible CEFR levels are Below A2 (a score less than the minimum needed to enter A2; e.g., for Reading Comprehension that is under 210), A2, B1 and B2.

The revised recommended TOEFL Junior Standard cut scores for CEFR Levels A2, B1 and B2 are shown below, as of October 2012 (For explanation on TOEFL Junior Standard cut scores revision see CEFR Mapping Studies section below):

SectionsCEFR Level Below A2CEFR Level A2CEFR Level B1CEFR Level B2
Listening Comprehension Under 225 225–245 250–285 290–300
Language Form and Meaning Under 210 210–245 250–275 280–300
Reading Comprehension Under 210 210–240 245–275 280–300

Read the Executive Summary: Mapping the TOEFL Junior® Test onto the Common European Framework of Reference

Read the full ETS Research Report: Mapping the TOEFL Junior® Test Onto the Common European Framework of Reference

CEFR Mapping Studies

In 2010, a standard-setting study was conducted by ETS researchers to map TOEFL Junior Standard test scores to the CEFR. The purpose of the study was to provide policymakers with recommended minimum scale scores (cut scores) for the Listening Comprehension, Language Form and Meaning, and Reading Comprehension sections. Because the TOEFL Junior test is available in two testing modes, the TOEFL Junior Standard test (paper-delivered) and the TOEFL Junior Comprehensive test (computer-delivered), which differ in the number of language skills they measure, a second mapping study was conducted in 2012 to identify the minimum scores on the TOEFL Junior Comprehensive test that correspond to each level of the CEFR. Further research was also conducted employing equipercentile equating of the Reading and Listening measures of the TOEFL Junior Comprehensive test to their corresponding TOEFL Junior Standard scores. These additional studies allow ETS to align the test scores and the CEFR cut scores for both TOEFL Junior tests.

As a result of the additional studies, the TOEFL Junior Standard cut scores for CEFR levels A2, B1 and B2 cut scores were revised in October 2012.

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