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Praxis® Performance Assessment for Teachers (PPAT) Task 3 Deep Dive

Transcript

Video duration: 20:47

Praxis® Performance Assessment for Teachers (PPAT) Task 3 Deep Dive Video

On Screen: [PPAT® Assessment Deep Dive into TASK 3: Designing Instruction for Student Learning]

Narrator: Welcome! Let’s take a deep dive into Task 3 of the PPAT assessment.

On Screen: [Purpose: Ensure participants’ better understanding of: the main components of Task 3, the knowledge and skills that are necessary to complete the requirements for Task 3, Educator Preparation Program (EPP) support for candidates]

Narrator: The purpose of this presentation is to help you better understand the main components of Task 3 and the resources available to candidates and preparation programs.

We hope this presentation provides a better understanding of things the candidate and the teacher education program should consider.

On Screen: [The structure of Task 3: Overview and Main Components]

Narrator: Let’s begin by looking closely at how Task 3 is structured.

On Screen: [The Steps in Task 3: Step 1: Planning the Lesson, Step 2: The Focus Students, Step 3: Analyzing the Instruction, Step 4: Reflecting]

Narrator: Task 3 is broken down into four steps. Each step has an important role in moving the candidate through the required activities of planning the lesson, with emphasis on having two focus students, analyzing the instruction, and reflecting on the instruction based on the results.

On Screen: [

Step 1

TEXTBOX

(the guiding prompts are listed below)

3.1.1

a. What learning theory/method will guide your planning process? Provide a brief description of the theory/method. How will you make use of it?

b. What learning goal(s) and content standards, state and/or national standards, did you identify for the lesson? How will they guide the planned learning activities?

c. What is the content focus of the lesson? What related content that the students have previously encountered will support the learning in this lesson?

d. What are some difficulties students might encounter with the content? How will you address the difficulties?

3.1.2

a. What different instructional strategies do you plan to use to engage students in the lesson and to enhance their learning? Provide a rationale for your choice of each strategy.

b. How do the instructional strategies connect to the learning goal(s) to facilitate student learning?

c. What informed your decisions to use individual, small-group, and/or whole-group instruction to facilitate student learning?

3.1.3

a. What learning activities do you plan to implement in this lesson? Provide a rationale for your choices.

b. How will these learning activities address students' strengths and needs?

c. How did your class demographics inform the design of the learning activities you chose?

3.1.4

a. What materials and resources will you use to support your instruction and student learning? Provide a rationale to support your choices.

b. What types of technology do you plan to use in your instruction?

c. How will your chosen technology enhance your instruction and student learning in the lesson?

Step 2

TEXTBOX

(the guiding prompts are listed below)

3.2.1

Focus Student 1:

a. Identify Focus Student 1’s learning strengths and challenges related to the learning goal(s) of the lesson.

b. Describe how you will differentiate specific parts of your lesson plan to help Focus Student 1 meet the learning goal(s) of the lesson. Provide a rationale.

c. What evidence will you collect to show the progress Focus Student 1 makes toward the learning goal(s)?

Focus Student 2:

a. Identify Focus Student 2’s learning strengths and challenges related to the learning goal(s) of the lesson.

b. Describe how you will differentiate specific parts of your lesson plan to help Focus Student 2 meet the learning goal(s) of the lesson. Provide a rationale.

c. What evidence will you collect to show the progress Focus Student 2 makes toward the learning goal(s)?

Step 3

TEXTBOX

(the guiding prompts are listed below)

3.3.1

a. To what extent did the lesson, including instructional strategies, learning activities, materials, resources, and technology, help to facilitate student learning? How does the evidence you collected support this finding?

b. How did the students use the content presented to demonstrate meaningful learning? Provide specific examples from the lesson and from the student work to support your analysis.

c. While you were teaching, what adjustments to the lesson did you implement for the whole class to better support student engagement and learning? Provide examples to support your decisions.

d. What steps did you take to foster teacher-to-student and student-to-student interactions? How did they impact student engagement and learning?

e. What feedback did you provide during the lesson to facilitate student learning? What impact did the feedback have on student learning? Provide specific examples.

3.3.2

a. To what extent did each of the two Focus Students achieve the learning goal(s) of the lesson? Cite examples to support your analysis.

b. How did your differentiation of specific parts of the lesson help each of the two Focus Students meet the learning goal(s)? Cite examples to support your analysis.

Step 4

TEXTBOX

(the guiding prompts are listed below)

3.4.1

a. What specific instructional strategies, learning activities, materials, resources, and technology will you use to help students who did not achieve the learning goal(s)? Describe how these lesson components will help the students achieve the learning goal(s).

b. How will you use your analysis of the lesson and the evidence of student learning to guide your planning of future lessons for the whole class? Provide specific examples.

3.4.2

a. How will you use your analysis of the lesson and evidence of student learning to guide your planning of future lessons for each of the two Focus Students? Provide specific examples.

]

Narrator: Here we have an overview of Task 3’s structure. In the actual structure of the task, those four steps are then broken down into textboxes. Each textbox is labeled with three numbers. For example, in this series of numbers, 3.1.2, the first number (3) represents the task number (this is Task 3), the second number (1) represents the step number for this task (this is the first step in Task 3), and the last number (2) tells me that this is the second textbox within Step 1. Therefore, the textbox number is 3.1.2.

Notice that Step 1 has 4 textboxes, Step 2 has 1 textbox, Steps 3 and 4 each have 2 textboxes.

Textboxes are important because this is where candidates present their written commentary and artifacts.

Understanding the numbering system on the tasks is helpful because the same numbering system is used on the scoring rubric.

On Screen: [Overview of the Artifact Requirement of Task 3

Artifact

Maximum Number of Pages

Textbox Location

representative pages of a lesson plan for the whole class that includes the use of technology*

2

3.1.1

representative page of a differentiated lesson plan for Focus Student 1

1

3.2.1

representative page of a differentiated lesson plan for Focus Student 2

1

3.2.1

a work sample from any class member other than the two Focus Students

1

3.3.1

a work sample from Focus Student 1

1

3.3.2

a work sample from Focus Student 2

1

3.3.2

* A sample template is provided, but teacher candidates may submit a form of their own.]

Narrator: In addition to the written commentary required for each textbox, the candidate will submit artifacts for three of the steps as well, Steps 1, 2, and 3.

Let’s take a look at the artifacts by step.

For Step 1, in the first textbox, 3.1.1, the one required artifact is a lesson plan. The next column shows the maximum page limit allowed for the artifact, which is two pages. The asterisked sentence below the chart indicates that a template of a lesson plan is provided, but the candidate may choose whether to use it or his or her own lesson plan format.

For Step 2, the first textbox, 3.2.1, requires the candidate to submit two artifacts (a differentiated lesson plan for Focus Student 1 and a differentiated lesson plan for Focus Student 2). Each must not exceed the one-page limit.

For Step 3, textbox 3.3.1 requires one artifact (a work sample from a student other than the two focus students) and for textbox 3.3.2, two artifacts must be attached (a work sample for each of the two focus students).

As you can see, Step 4 does not require the attachment of any artifacts.

On Screen: [Written Commentary: Types of Writing Required in a Task]

Descriptive Writing

Analytic Writing

Reflective Writing

Retells what happened, sets the scene and gives a basic sense of the situation

¾ Accurately explain

¾ Ensure people, events, and concepts are clearly described

Provides reasons, motives, interpretation supported by evidence

Reveals thought processes used to arrive at conclusions

Provides significance of the evidence submitted

Provides thought processes after completing an activity

¾ Making sense of an experience

¾ Giving perspective/clarity

¾ Showing deeper understanding

¾ Drawing conclusions that inform future practice

(an arrow points from the Analytic Writing column to the Reflective Writing column indicating there is overlap)]

Narrator: Let’s talk for a few minutes about the written commentary. The written commentary is the candidate’s response to the guiding prompts presented in the Task Requirements, and candidates will be asked to write in three different ways.

Descriptive writing is a retelling of what happened in a school situation or event. This kind of writing is meant to set the scene for raters.

Analytical writing gives reasons, motives, and interpretations of events or decisions. It allows candidates to articulate the thought processes they use to arrive at their conclusions about a situation or event. Analysis also demonstrates the significance of the submitted evidence and artifacts.

Reflective writing is the thought process that occurs after the completion of an activity. This is the kind of thought process that allows a candidate to think deeply about what occurred—and what did not occur—during an event or situation and to make decisions about how to approach similar situations in the future.

On Screen: [A Walk-Through Task 3 Task Requirements Rubric]

Narrator: Now, let’s look at the Task 3 requirements and rubric.

On Screen: [Task 3 PPAT® Assessment Task Requirements Task 3 Designing Instruction for Student Learning

In this task, you will demonstrate your ability to develop instruction, including the use of technology, to facilitate student learning.

Standards and Indicators Measured in This Task

The following InTASC Model Core Teaching Standards represent the focus of this task.

The evidence you submit must address and will be scored according to the following.

Standard 1, Indicators a and b

Standard 2, Indicators a, b, c, and f

Standard 3, Indicator e

Standard 4, Indicators e, f, and g

Standard 6, Indicators a, c, d, and g

Standard 7, Indicators a, b, c, d, and f

Standard 8, Indicators a and b

Standard 9, Indicator c

(an arrow points to the standards from a list containing:

· Learner development

· Learning Differences

· Learning Environments

· Content Knowledge

· Assessment

· Planning for Instruction

· Instructional Strategies

· Professional Learning)]

Narrator: Here is the visual of the first page of the Task Requirements.

On this page, we provide the InTASC Model Core Teaching Standards and indicators with which Task 3 is aligned.

On Screen: [What Do You Have to Do for This Task?

For this task, you must submit the following evidence.

1. Written Commentary of a maximum of 25,500 characters (approximately eight typed pages) that

· responds to all parts of the guiding prompts;

· references your artifacts to support your written evidence; and

· describes, analyzes, and reflects on the evidence

2. Identification of two Focus Students who reflect different learning needs

3. Six different artifacts (maximum of seven pages), including

Artifact

Maximum Number of Pages

Textbox Location

representative pages of a lesson plan for the whole class that includes the use of technology*

2

3.1.1

representative page of a differentiated lesson plan for Focus Student 1

1

3.2.1

representative page of a differentiated lesson plan for Focus Student 2

1

3.2.1

a work sample from any class member other than the two Focus Students

1

3.3.1

a work sample from Focus Student 1

1

3.3.2

a work sample from Focus Student 2

1

3.3.2

* A sample template is provided, but teacher candidates may submit a form of their own.]

Narrator: Here we have an overview of what the candidate must provide: a written commentary of no more than 25,500 characters, an identification of two focus students, and six different artifacts.

On Screen: [Task 3 Rubric, The Holistic and Analytic Parts of the Rubric]

Narrator: Now, let’s take a look at the overview of the Task 2 rubric.

On Screen: [Holistic Portion of the Rubric

Rubric for Step 1: Planning the Lesson (textboxes 3.1.1, 3.1.2, 3.1.3, and 3.1.4)

Score of 1

Score of 2

Score of 3

Score of 4

A response at the 1 level provides minimal evidence that effectively demonstrates the teacher candidate’s ability to identify and describe a learning theory/method and tell how it will be used to guide the planning process; to select learning goals and content standards, both state and national, to guide the planned learning activities; to select a content focus and identify related content that students have previously encountered as well as identify and address difficulties students may encounter with the content; to select different instructional strategies connected to the learning goal(s) to engage students in the lesson and to use individual, small-group, and/or whole-group instruction to facilitate student learning; to design learning activities that address student strengths and needs and are influenced by classroom demographics; and to identify materials, resources to support instruction and student learning; and to identify technology to enhance instruction and student learning in this lesson.

The preponderance of evidence for the 1-level criteria is minimal and/or ineffective throughout the response for Step 1. Evidence may also be missing.

A response at the 2 level provides partial evidence that demonstrates the teacher candidate’s ability to identify and describe a learning theory/method and tell how it will be used to guide the planning process; to select learning goals and content standards, both state and national, to guide the planned learning activities; to select a content focus and identify related content that students have previously encountered as well as identify and address difficulties students may encounter with the content; to select different instructional strategies connected to the learning goal(s) to engage students in the lesson and to use individual, small-group, and/or whole-group instruction to facilitate student learning; to design learning activities that address student strengths and needs and are influenced by classroom demographics; and to identify materials, resources to support instruction and student learning; and to identify technology to enhance instruction and student learning in this lesson.

The preponderance of evidence for the 2-level criteria is limited and/or vague throughout the response for Step 1.

A response at the 3 level provides effective evidence that demonstrates the teacher candidate’s ability to identify and describe a learning theory/method and tell how it will be used to guide the planning process; to select learning goals and content standards, state and/or national, to guide the planned learning activities; to select a content focus and identify related content that students have previously encountered as well as identify and address difficulties students may encounter with the content; to select different instructional strategies connected to the learning goal(s) to engage students in the lesson and to use individual, small-group, and/or whole-group instruction to facilitate student learning; to design learning activities that address student strengths and needs and are influenced by classroom demographics; and to identify materials, resources to support instruction and student learning; and to identify technology to enhance instruction and student learning in this lesson.

The preponderance of evidence for the 3-level criteria is appropriate and connected throughout the response for Step 1.

A response at the 4 level provides consistent evidence that demonstrates the teacher candidate’s ability to identify and describe a learning theory/method and tell how it will be used to guide the planning process; to select learning goals and content standards, both state and national, to guide the planned learning activities; to select a content focus and identify related content that students have previously encountered as well as identify and address difficulties students may encounter with the content; to select different instructional strategies connected to the learning goal(s) to engage students in the lesson and to use individual, small-group, and/or whole-group instruction to facilitate student learning; to design learning activities that address student strengths and needs and are influenced by classroom demographics; and to identify materials, resources to support instruction and student learning; and to identify technology to enhance instruction and student learning in this lesson.

The preponderance of evidence for the 4-level criteria is insightful and tightly connected throughout the response for Step 1

(an arrow points to the section that begins: “The preponderance of evidence”)]

Narrator: The rubric has two parts: the holistic section which is shown on this slide and an analytic section which can be found on the following slide. Ultimately, raters use the holistic section to determine the quality and completeness of a candidate’s evidence for each step. The words in italics are qualitative and distinguish the differences between each of the score points. For example, a score of 1 displays the characteristics of providing minimal and/or ineffective evidence. A score of two is limited and vague. A score of 3 is appropriate and connected. And a score of 4 is insightful and thoroughly connected.

Teacher candidates should become very familiar with this document when drafting their written commentary and selecting their artifacts.

On Screen:[Analytic Portion of the Rubric Response for Textbox 3.1.1

Score of 1

Score of 2

Score of 3

Score of 4

Response provides evidence that includes the following:

· a misinformed identification and description of a learning theory/method that guides the planning process with minimal explanation of its use

· minimal identification of learning goal(s), content standards, state and/or national standards, and how they will guide the planned learning activities

· minimal connections of the content focus of the lesson to the content students previously encountered

· irrelevant identification of difficulties students may have with the content, with an inappropriate plan to address those difficulties

Response provides evidence that includes the following:

· a cursory identification and description of a learning theory/method that guides the planning process with a limited explanation of its use

· partial identification of learning goal(s), content standards, state and/or national standards, and how they will guide the planned learning activities

· uneven connections of the content focus of the lesson to the content students previously encountered

· cursory identification of difficulties students may have with the content, with a partial plan to address those difficulties

Response provides evidence that includes the following:

· an appropriate identification and description of a learning theory/method that guides the planning process with a relevant explanation of its use

· effective identification of learning goal(s), content standards, state and/or national standards, and how they will guide the planned learning activities

· informed connections of the content focus of the lesson to the content students previously encountered

· an appropriate identification of difficulties students may have with the content, with a relevant plan to address those difficulties

Response provides evidence that includes the following:

· a significant identification and description of a learning theory/method that guides the planning process with a thorough explanation of its use

· insightful identification of learning goal(s), content standards, state and/or national standards, and how they will guide the planned learning activities

· thorough connections of the content focus of the lesson to the content students previously encountered

· in-depth identification of difficulties students may have with the content, with a thorough plan to address those difficulties

]

Narrator: The holistic section is followed by the analytical section. The analytical section has a bullet for each guiding prompt in the textbox. Candidates can use the analytical section to self-assess the quality of their response. The qualitative words for each score point are shown in italics. A strategy for candidates is to highlight the qualitative words throughout the document. This will help them become familiar with the characteristics of each score point.

On Screen: [Contextual Information]

Narrator: Now, let’s discuss the parts of the task. As with all the tasks, the candidate begins by providing contextual information. This is the first textbox the rater reviews during the scoring process.

On Screen: [Contextual Information

This step allows you to provide a picture of your class that will enable the reader to better understand your instruction and decision-making skills.

Overview

Many factors can affect teaching and learning; these could include the community, the district, and/or individual school/classroom/student factors.

The information you gather about your teaching and learning context and about your individual students will help provide perspective to the reader who will be scoring your submissions.

This part of your submission will not be scored, but the information you include should have implications regarding your instructional choices.

Your response must be limited to 1,500 characters (approximately one-half typed page). No artifacts can be attached to the Contextual Information textbox.

a. Describe your classroom. Include the grade level, content area, subject matter, and number of students. Provide relevant information about any of your students with special needs.

b. Describe any physical, social, behavioral, or developmental factors that may impact the instruction that occurs in your classroom. Mention any linguistic, cultural, or health considerations that may also impact teaching and learning in your classroom.

c. Describe any factors related to the school and surrounding community that may impact the teaching and learning that occurs in your classroom.]

Narrator: In this textbox, the candidate will describe his or her classroom, school, and community in which this task takes place. Primarily, this gives the rater any important background information that may be needed to understand the context of the response for this particular candidate.

This textbox is not scored. Artifacts are not attached here, and the response text is limited to 1,500 characters.

On Screen: [Contextual Information Samples

a. The classroom I chose was a Geometry class. The class is made up of 20 students that range from 14 years old to 16 years old. There is one freshman and the rest of the class is sophomores. In this chapter, we worked on similarity and proving similar triangles. There is only one student with an IEP for extended time and close to instruction.

b. There is one student in the classroom that has Attention Deficient Hyperactive Disorder, and another student has been diagnosed with Epilepsy. I need to be mindful of the student with Epilepsy to be sure that she is safe and able to learn. For all of the students in the classroom, they are experiencing the developmental stage of puberty and teenage years. Therefore, I need to be aware that the students will be self–centered and also talkative. Their natural tendency will be to talk, so I will need to use this information in my favor.

c. The school is a one–to–one school, so all students have access to an iPad®. I know that the median income for the community is high and the rate for free and reduced lunch is low. The majority of citizens of the community are prominent white citizens. Therefore, the students should have access to more privileges, such as wireless Internet. I can assign homework that requires wireless Internet on their iPads, and I know that the students will have access to resources of their textbook at home as well.]

Narrator: Here is a sample contextual information textbox. This is representative of what we might see from candidates.

This is a fairly simple textbox, and it doesn’t seem to give the candidate much trouble.

On Screen: [Breaking Down the Steps, Step 1

· Step 1: Planning the Lesson

· Step 2: The Focus Students

· Step 3: Analyzing the Instruction

· Step 4: Reflecting

(an arrow points to Step 1)]

Narrator: Now, let’s look at each of the three steps.

In the first step, the candidate will demonstrate knowledge of planning an effective lesson that facilitates student learning. This step asks a candidate to plan a lesson that fosters student interactions, incorporates the use of technology, and gathers evidence of student learning. Step 1 focuses strictly on the planning process.

It is paramount that the candidate read through this entire task prior to selecting a lesson as the focus of his or her response for Task 3. The lesson selected must have enough depth to be able to provide an opportunity for a thorough response to all of the guiding prompts.

On Screen: [Step 1: Textbox 3.1.1: Standards and Learning Goals

Step 1: Planning the Lesson

This step allows you to demonstrate your ability to develop an effective lesson plan that facilitates student learning.

Textbox 3.1.1: Standards and Learning Goals

Activity: Planning for Instruction

Develop a lesson plan that you will use with your students in this task. (You may use the template provided.) As you plan, keep in mind such things as fostering student interactions, using technology, and gathering evidence of student learning. Explain your planning process as you respond to the guiding prompts below.

Guiding Prompts

a. What learning theory/method will guide your planning process? Provide a brief description of the theory/method. How will you make use of it? (Three points to cover)

b. What learning goal(s) and content standards, state and/or national standards, did you identify for the lesson? How will they guide the planned learning activities? (Four points to cover)

c. What is the content focus of the lesson? What related content that the students have previously encountered will support the learning in this lesson? (Two points to cover)

d. What are some difficulties students might encounter with the content? How will you address the difficulties? (Two points to cover)

Required artifact for this textbox:

· representative pages of your lesson plan for the whole class (maximum of two pages). Make sure your lesson plan includes the use of technology

(an arrow points to the required artifacts list and reads ONE ARTIFACT TO ATTACH)]

Narrator: This is the first textbox of task requirements for Step 1. Candidates are encouraged to highlight the task requirements to help them become more informed about the activity and the key words that they need to consider before they choose a lesson for this task. Also, as candidates are writing their responses, they are encouraged to label the parts of their response a, b, and c. It is not required, but it does help the candidate recognize where parts of the guiding prompts are missing or need more evidence, and it helps to add clarity for a rater who is scoring the response and looking for evidence that the candidate addressed each part of the guiding prompts.

Look at the words in green highlighted to draw your attention to the evidence needed by the candidate in the response. The words in red at the end of each guiding prompt are highlights that show how many parts must be answered.

On Screen: [Consider These Questions When Selecting a Lesson for this Task

Is the lesson chosen significant?

· Will your lesson provide opportunities to demonstrate your ability to develop a lesson that includes instructional strategies, learning activities, and groupings in order to meet the learning goals?

· Does this lesson allow for materials, resources, and technology to be used to teach the lesson?

· Does this lesson allow for opportunities for differentiation of instruction to meet particular student needs (Focus Students)?

· Does the lesson provide an opportunity for students to generate work samples that are robust enough to use when citing support for your guiding prompts (e.g., students achieving learning goals, adjustments to the lesson for better engagement)?]

Narrator: If candidates truly read and dissect the entire task before attempting to complete it, they will be able to say “yes” to all of these questions.

On Screen: [What do you think are some of the problems or challenges that we commonly see in candidate submissions for this step in the task?]

Narrator: Some of the problems we have seen in less accomplished responses are lesson choices that are not robust enough to produce the evidence for a substantive analysis. The chosen topic also does not provide opportunities for specific and relevant differentiation of that lesson for the focus students, or the work samples are without substance and don’t allow an opportunity for the candidate to provide solid examples when required by the guiding prompts.

Whatever lesson is the focus of this task, it must allow a candidate the opportunity to fully demonstrate his or her knowledge of planning, executing, and analyzing a lesson.

On Screen: [Step 1: Textbox 3.1.2: Instructional Strategies

Textbox 3.1.2: Instructional Strategies

Guiding Prompts

a. What different instructional strategies do you plan to use to engage students in the lesson and to enhance their learning? Provide a rationale for your choice of each strategy. (Two points to cover)

b. How do the instructional strategies connect to the learning goal(s) to facilitate student learning? (One point to cover)

c. What informed your decisions to use individual, small-group, and/or whole-group instruction to facilitate student learning? (One point to cover)]

Narrator: Recall that the focus of Step 1 is PLANNING of the lesson.

When a candidate is choosing the lesson to teach, he or she must also consider this textbox BEFORE choosing that lesson.

The guiding prompts in this textbox ask the candidate to talk about the lesson’s instructional activities and their connection to the learning goals of this lesson as well as the reasoning for the student groupings he or she will be using as part of the lesson.

If the candidates can’t answer all of these in the context of their lesson, then the chosen lesson is not a good one for this performance assessment.

The response for this textbox should reflect the instructional strategies and groupings that a candidate is planning to use to teach this lesson to the students.

Instructional strategies are the approaches used by the teacher candidate in the classroom to best meet the learning goals and needs of the students.

For example:

Instructional strategies could include teaching a lesson that incorporates such things as cooperative learning or problem-solving.

On Screen: [Step 1: Textbox 3.1.3: Learning Activities

Textbox 3.1.3: Learning Activities

Guiding Prompts

a. What learning activities do you plan to implement in this lesson? Provide a rationale for your choices. (Two points to cover)

b. How will these learning activities address students' strengths and needs? (Two points to cover)

c. How did your class demographics inform the design of the learning activities you chose? (One point to cover)]

Narrator: The candidate must be able to talk about the choice of learning activities for this lesson and the rationale for the selection. In a strong response, the rationale for choosing the learning activities will show a direct connection to the learning goals of the lesson. Learning activities are defined in the glossary as being the design of the learning environment and the experiences provided to students that support and facilitate student learning. (For example, think-pair-share, role play, or debates)

On Screen: [Step 1: Textbox 3.1.4: Materials, Resources and Technology

Textbox 3.1.4: Materials, Resources and Technology

Guiding Prompts

a. What materials and resources will you use to support your instruction and student learning? Provide a rationale to support your choices. (Three points to cover)

b. What types of technology do you plan to use in your instruction? (One point to cover)

c. How will your chosen technology enhance your instruction and student learning in the lesson? (Two points to cover)]

Narrator: Textbox 3.1.4 is the final textbox for the planning part of this task.

If you look at the three guiding prompts in this textbox, you will see that the candidate will need to have selected a lesson that supports discussion of materials, resources, and technology as they apply to the lesson being taught.

The candidate must choose a lesson that will feature technology either as a resource for students to use personally or as a way for the candidate to deliver the lesson. The selection of technology simply to record grades is not considered a viable use of technology for instruction.

On Screen: [Breaking Down the Steps, Step 2

· Step 1: Planning the Lesson

· Step 2: The Focus Students

· Step 3: Analyzing the Instruction

· Step 4: Reflecting

(an arrow points to Step 2)]

Narrator: Let’s move on to the second step in Task 3: The Focus Students

On Screen: [Step 2: Textbox 3.2.1: Understanding Each of the Two Focus Students and Differentiated Instruction

This step allows you to demonstrate your ability to differentiate instruction for individual students.

Textbox 3.2.1: Understanding Each of the Two Focus Students and Differentiating Instruction

Activity: Differentiating Instruction

From the whole class, select two students who reflect different learning needs. Refer to them as Focus Student 1 and Focus Student 2. Then respond to the guiding prompts below.

Guiding Prompts

Focus Student 1:

a. Identify Focus Student 1’s learning strengths and challenges related to the learning goal(s) of the lesson. (Two points to cover)

b. Describe how you will differentiate specific parts of your lesson plan to help Focus Student 1 meet the learning goal(s) of the lesson. Provide a rationale. (Two points to cover)

c. What evidence will you collect to show the progress Focus Student 1 makes toward the learning goal(s)? (One point to cover)]

Narrator: There is only one textbox in Step 2, and that is focused on the selection and description of two focus students in the context of this lesson.

A candidate must select two focus students who reflect different learning needs and for whom the lesson will be differentiated. These focus students will be representative of the manner in which a candidate interacts with all of his or her students. Using focus students who have different learning needs will allow a candidate to show skills in teaching students with different strengths and learning requirements. Descriptions of the focus students must include their strengths and challenges in regard to the learning goals of the lesson. There must be a clear connection.

For a definition of “differentiation” please review the PPAT glossary

When providing written commentary about the differentiation that will take place for each focus student, a rationale for the selections must be provided as well.

The last prompt in this textbox asks the candidates what evidence he or she will look for in order to demonstrate the learning goals for this lesson have been achieved.

On Screen: [Step 2: Textbox 3.2.1: Understanding Each of the Two Focus Students and Differentiating Instruction (Cont’d)

Focus Student 2:

a. Identify Focus Student 2’s learning strengths and challenges related to the learning goal(s) of the lesson.

b. Describe how you will differentiate specific parts of your lesson plan to help Focus Student 2 meet the learning goal(s) of the lesson. Provide a rationale.

c. What evidence will you collect to show the progress Focus Student 2 makes toward the learning goal(s)?

Required artifacts for this textbox:

· a differentiated lesson plan for Focus Student 1 (maximum of one page)

· a differentiated lesson plan for Focus Student 2 (maximum of one page)

(an arrow points to the required artifacts list and reads TWO ARTIFACTS TO ATTACH)]

Narrator: Here is the second half of the 3.2.1 textbox regarding the two focus students. Here a candidate responds to the same guiding prompts as he or she did for Focus Student 1. Again, these two students must have different learning needs and reflect the candidate’s reasons for differentiation.

The candidate is required to submit two artifacts to this textbox, a differentiated lesson plan for each of the focus students.

On Screen: [Breaking Down the Steps, Step 3

· Step 1: Planning the Lesson

· Step 2: The Focus Students

· Step 3: Analyzing the Instruction

· Step 4: Reflecting

(an arrow points to Step 3)]

Narrator: The third step for Task 3 is called “Analyzing the Instruction.” This step allows the candidate to demonstrate his or her ability to analyze a lesson and evidence of student learning.

There are two textboxes in Step 3; one textbox focuses on the whole class and the other on the two focus students.

On Screen: [Step 3: Textbox 3.3.1: Analyzing the Instruction for the Whole Class

This step allows you to demonstrate your ability to analyze a lesson and evidence of student learning.

Textbox 3.3.1: Analyzing the Instruction for the Whole Class

Activity: Analyzing the Instruction

After you have implemented the lesson, respond to the guiding prompts below.

Guiding Prompts

a. To what extent did the lesson, including instructional strategies, learning activities, materials, resources, and technology, help to facilitate student learning? How does the evidence you collected support this finding? (Two points to cover)

b. How did the students use the content presented to demonstrate meaningful learning? Provide specific examples from the lesson and from the student work to support your analysis. (Three points to cover)

c. While you were teaching, what adjustments to the lesson did you implement for the whole class to better support student engagement and learning? Provide examples to support your decisions. (Two points to cover)

d. What steps did you take to foster teacher-to-student and student-to-student interactions? How did they impact student engagement and learning? (Three points to cover)

e. What feedback did you provide during the lesson to facilitate student learning? What impact did the feedback have on student learning? Provide specific examples. (Three points to cover)

Required artifact for this textbox:

· a student work sample from any member of the class other than the two Focus Students (maximum of one page)

(an arrow points to the required artifacts list and reads ONE ARTIFACT TO ATTACH)]

Narrator: Step 3 asks the candidate to demonstrate his or her ability to analyze the lesson’s components and the outcome of student learning.

It is important to notice that textbox 3.3.1 focuses on the candidate’s analysis of the lesson for the whole class. The focus students will be addressed in the following textbox.

A candidate must show analysis, which is analytical writing, in regard to these prompts and not a restating of what occurred during the lesson, which is descriptive writing.

There are thirteen points to cover in this textbox.

Guiding prompt (a) asks the candidate to think about all of those components that he or she planned for in Step 1. Now, the candidate must analyze whether those things did indeed help facilitate students’ growth toward the learning goals. The analysis has to be accompanied by evidence to support this conjecture.

Guiding prompt (b) has three points to cover. Here the candidate must connect specific examples from the lesson and from the student work as he or she describes how students’ use of content provided meaningful learning. So the candidate shouldn’t just state what the students learned; he or she must provide specifics throughout the lesson itself and through the attached student artifact.

In guiding prompt (c) the candidate must think about the students’ engagement with the lesson and speak to how he or she monitored this engagement and adjusted the lesson to better support learning. Specific examples must accompany this analysis.

Guiding prompt (d) asks for a description of the steps taken to foster teacher-to-student and student-to-student interaction during the course of teaching this lesson and also an analysis of how the steps taken affected student engagement and learning.

Guiding prompt (e) asks for specific, detailed information about teacher feedback given to the students to facilitate learning and an analysis of how that feedback impacted both student engagement and student learning.

There is one artifact that the candidate must attach to this textbox: a student work sample that is from someone other than the focus students. This artifact should be connected to the guiding prompts that ask for specific evidence and examples.

On Screen: [Step 3: Textbox 3.3.2: Analyzing the Differentiated Instruction for Each of the Two Focus Students

Textbox 3.3.2: Analyzing the Differentiated Instruction for Each of the Two Focus Students

Guiding Prompts

a. To what extent did each of the two Focus Students achieve the learning goal(s) of the lesson? Cite examples to support your analysis. (Four points to cover; two per Focus Student)

b. How did your differentiation of specific parts of the lesson help each of the two Focus Students meet the learning goal(s)? Cite examples to support your analysis. (Four points to cover; two per Focus Student)

Required artifacts for this textbox:

· a student work sample from Focus Student 1 (maximum of one page)

· a student work sample from Focus Student 2 (maximum of one page)

(an arrow points to the required artifacts list and reads TWO ARTIFACTS TO ATTACH)]

Narrator: Textbox 3.3.2 is entirely about the two focus students and the candidate’s analysis of their differentiated instruction.

There are eight points to cover in these two guiding prompts. Candidates need to pay particular attention to addressing each prompt twice: once for Focus Student 1 and once for Focus Student 2. Each response should be different because the focus students have individual learning needs that required differentiated teaching of the lesson.

When writing about each focus student, the candidate must support his or her analysis by citingexamples from the student work sample for that particular student. Therefore, the candidate MUST make sure that the work samples he or she selects are robust enough for this discussion and analysis.

On Screen:[Breaking Down the Steps, Step 4

· Step 1: Planning the Lesson

· Step 2: The Focus Students

· Step 3: Analyzing the Instruction

· Step 4: Reflecting

(an arrow points to Step 4)]

Narrator: Step 4 is all about the candidate’s reflection on the lesson.

Reflection is the thought process that occurs after the completion of an activity. This is the kind of thought process that allows a candidate to think deeply about what occurred—and what did not occurand to make decisions about how to approach similar situations in the future.

There are no artifacts required for Step 4.

On Screen: [Step 4: Textbox 3.4.1: Reflecting on the Lesson for the Whole Class

This step allows you to reflect on the strengths of your lesson as well as on components of your lesson that need improvement.

Textbox 3.4.1: Reflecting on the Lesson for the Whole Class

Activity: Reflecting After Instruction

Think about your lesson plan, the lesson you taught, and evidence of student learning. Then respond to the guiding prompts below.

Guiding Prompts

a. What specific instructional strategies, learning activities, materials, resources, and technology will you use to help students who did not achieve the learning goal(s)? Describe how these lesson components will help the students achieve the learning goal(s). (Two points to cover)

b. How will you use your analysis of the lesson and the evidence of student learning to guide your planning of future lessons for the whole class? Provide specific examples. (Three points to cover)]

Narrator: This first textbox in Step 4, textbox 3.4.1, asks the candidate to focus on the whole class. The candidate’s reflection should take into consideration the lesson taught and those students who did not achieve the learning goals and what specific instructional strategies, learning activities, materials, resources, and technology can be used to help them. The candidate must ask himself or herself, “What can I change to help further learning for these specific students?” The candidate also must specifically connect these new components to the needs of the students in question.

Guiding prompt (b) asks the candidate how everything he or she has learned, based on the lesson and student work, will guide planning for future lessons. The candidate must also use specific examples to support the reflection.

On Screen: [Step 4: Textbox 3.4.2: Reflecting on Differentiated Instruction for Each of the Two Focus Students

Textbox 3.4.2: Reflecting on the Differentiated Instruction for Each of the Two Focus Students

Guiding Prompts

a. How will you use your analysis of the lesson and evidence of student learning to guide your planning of future lessons for each of the two Focus Students? Provide specific examples. (Four points to cover)]

Narrator: Candidates must respond to this guiding prompt for EACH of the two focus students. Examples must accompany this reflection and must refer to both the lesson taught and the student’s work.

On Screen: [Resources]

Narrator: This concludes the description of Task 3 and its requirements.

Here is a quick reminder of some available resources.

On Screen: [Website

General Information: http://www.ets.org/ppa/test-takers/teachers/about

Tasks and Rubrics: http://www.ets.org/ppa/test-takers/teachers/build-submit/requirements

Ancillary Materials (Glossary, Lesson Plan Format, etc.): http://www.ets.org/ppa/test-takers/teachers/build-submit/ancillary-materials/

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): http://www.ets.org/ppa/test-takers/teachers/faq/

(an image displays the PPAT assessment website page)]

Narrator: The ETS website contains many resources to support candidates through the PPAT experience.

On Screen: [Candidate and Educator Handbook http://www.ets.org/s/ppa/pdf/ppat-candidate-educator-handbook.pdf

(an image displays the PPAT Assessment Candidate and Educator Handbook table of contents]

Narrator: There is a handbook that covers all of the information shown above. What we have shared about the tasks, rubric, and the artifacts are all in the handbook.

It is paramount that every PPAT candidate reads the handbook before he or she begins with the first task. The handbook documents all of the basic information about the assessment and tasks that will help ensure candidates are prepared to begin.

[END OF WEBINAR]