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Praxis® Performance Assessment for Teachers Task 4 Deep Dive Video

 
 

Transcript

Video duration: 27:54

People in this video:

Narrator – Annette Deluca, Assessment Specialist IV, ETS®

On Screen: [PPAT® Assessment Deep Dive into TASK 4: Implementing and Analyzing Instruction to Promote Student Learning]

Narrator: Thank you for joining us for a deep dive into PPAT Task 4 Implementing and Analyzing Instruction to Promote Student Learning.

On Screen: [Purpose Ensure participants' better understanding of:

  • the main components of Task 4
  • the knowledge and skills that are necessary to complete the requirements for Task 4
  • EPP support for candidates]

Narrator: The purpose of this presentation is to help you better understand the main components of Task 4 and the resources available to candidates and preparation programs.

The assessment requirements have implications for teacher preparation programs as well as for candidates. We hope that this presentation provides a better understanding of the task requirements as well as an awareness of strategies for the completion of a successful response.

On Screen: [A Walk Through Task 4 Task Requirements Rubric]

Narrator: Now, let’s look at the Task 4 requirements and the corresponding rubric.

On Screen: [PPAT Assessment Task Requirements

Task 4 Implementing and Analyzing Instruction to Promote Student Learning

In this task, you will demonstrate your ability to plan and implement a lesson using standards-based instruction. You will also show how you are able to adjust instruction for the whole class as well as for individual students within the class. Finally, you will demonstrate an understanding of reflective practice.

Standards and Indicators Measured in This Task

The following InTASC Model Core Teaching Standards represent the focus of this task.

The evidence you submit must address and will be scored according to the following.

Standard 1, Indicators a and b

Standard 2, Indicators a, b, c, and f

Standard 3, Indicator d, e, and f

Standard 4, Indicators c, d, e, f, g, and h

Standard 5, Indicator h

Standard 6, Indicators a, b, c, d, g, and h

Standard 7, Indicators a, b, c, d, and f

Standard 8, Indicators a, b, f, h, and i

Standard 9, Indicator c

An arrow points to the standards from a list containing:

  • Learner Development
  • Learning Differences
  • Learning Environments
  • Content Knowledge
  • Application of Content
  • Assessment
  • Planning for Instruction
  • Instructional Strategies
  • Professional Learning and Ethical Practice]

Narrator: Here is a visual of the first page of the Task Requirements. The first thing you see is the focus statement for the task. This statement tells the candidate exactly what he or she needs to demonstrate in the response. The candidate must show his or her ability to plan and implement a lesson using standards-based instruction, an ability to adjust instruction for the whole class and individuals, and an ability to reflect. When a rater has finished reading the response and all artifacts, a score will be assigned based on how well the candidate has addressed this focus statement.

As you can see, also on this page, is the Task 4 alignment with the InTASC Model Core Teaching Standards.

On Screen: [What Do You Have to Do for This Task?

For this task, you must submit the following evidence.

1 Written Commentary of a maximum of 28,500 characters (approximately nine typed pages) that

  • responds to all parts of the guiding prompts;
  • references your artifacts to support your written evidence; and
  • describes, analyzes, and reflects on the evidence

2 Identification of two Focus Students who reflect different learning needs.

3 Seven different artifacts (maximum of ten pages), including

Artifact

Maximum Number of Pages

Textbox Location

representative pages of a standards-based lesson plan*

2

4.1.1

baseline data (e.g., graphic representation, table, list) for the whole class

2

4.1.1

baseline data (e.g., graphic representation, table, list) specific to Focus Student 1

1

4.3.1

baseline data (e.g., graphic representation, table, list) specific to Focus Student 2

1

4.3.1

a student work sample from Focus Student 1

2

4.4.2

a student work sample from Focus Student 2

2

4.4.2

one fifteen-minute video (mandatory), which may contain one fifteen-minute segment (unedited) or three five-minute segments (each unedited) combined into one file

15 Minutes

4.5.1

* A sample template is provided, but teacher candidates may submit a form of their own (maximum of two pages),

How to Submit Your Evidence (Refer to the Submission System User Guide for details.)

  • Upload your artifacts into your Library of Artifacts. (See Step 5 for how to upload the video file.)
  • Refer to the artifacts in your Written Commentary.
  • Attach the artifacts to your Written Commentary within the appropriate textbox.

How to Compose Your Written Commentary

This task has five steps, four of which have guiding prompts to help you provide evidence that supports the rubric. Your response needs to address all parts of each of the guiding prompts.

  • Step 1: Planning
  • Step 2: Implementing the Plan
  • Step 3: Understanding the Two Focus Students
  • Step 4: Reflecting
  • Step 5: Uploading the Video]

Narrator: The next page of the task requirements provides an overview of what the candidate must submit:

  • a written commentary of no more than 28,500 characters,
  • an identification of two focus students, and
  • seven different artifacts including a fifteen-minute unedited video that may be divided into three five-minute sections.

Notice that, for Task 4, there are five steps. The first four steps receive a score and the fifth step, which is for the uploading of the video, does not.

On Screen: [Contextual Information]

Narrator: OK, let’s head into the parts of the task. As in all the tasks, the candidate begins by providing contextual information. This is the first textbox the rater reviews during the scoring process.

On Screen: [Contextual Information

This step allows you to provide a picture of your class that will enable the reader to better understand your instruction and decision-making skills.

Overview

Many factors can affect teaching and learning; these include the community, the district, and/or individual school/classroom/student factors.

The information you gather about your teaching and learning context and about your individual students will help provide perspective to the reader who will be scoring your submissions.

This part of your submission will not be scored, but the information you include should reflect implications regarding your instructional choices.

Your response must be limited to 1,500 characters (approximately one-half typed page). No artifacts can be attached to this Contextual Information textbox.

Textbox 4.0: Contextual Information

  • Describe your classroom. Include the grade level, content area, subject matter, and number of students. Provide relevant information about any of your students with special needs.
  • Describe any physical, social, behavioral, or developmental factors that may impact the instruction that occurs in your classroom. Mention any linguistic, cultural, or health considerations that may also impact teaching and learning in your classroom.
  • Describe any factors related to the school and surrounding community that may impact the teaching and learning that occurs in your classroom.

A Textbox is shown here with the heading: Type your response in the textbox below.]

Narrator: Many factors can affect teaching and learning. These include community, district, and/or individual school, classroom, and student factors. The information you gather about your teaching and learning contexts, and about your individual students, will help give a perspective to the rater who will be scoring your submissions.

In this textbox, the candidate will describe his or her classroom, school, and community in which this task takes place. Primarily, this gives the rater any important background information that may be needed to understand the context of the response for this particular candidate.

This textbox is not scored. Artifacts are not attached here, and the response text for this textbox is limited to 1,500 characters.

On Screen: [Contextual Information

a.) The preschool classroom is comprised of 10 boys and 6 girls with an age range of 4-6 years old. 5 of these children are on a current IEP, 2 of which are on a behavior plan. During the preschool morning, we work on developmentally appropriate skills such as socialization, manners, family style dining, and Pre-K skills (counting, measuring, phonology, alphabet awareness, developing pre-writing skills, fine motor, and gross motor).

b.) The diversity of the classroom includes children that are Asian, Native American, divorced families, and low socioeconomic status. Children that exhibit behaviors are given warnings to correct their behavior. After two warnings, they must visit the think seat. The Asian child is fluently bilingual in two languages. A child from a divorced family needs transition time after switching homes; more reassurance during this transition time.

c.) Preschools in this state are not mandated to attend prior to kindergarten. This preschool is a non-profit organization and is funded by tuition paid for by parents, scholarships, among other income qualifying programs. Therefore, it is at the parent’s discretion to enroll their child in a Pre-K program, as well as, the number of days their child attends. Due to funding, this preschool does not have technology in the classroom. The only technology utilized within this preschool classroom is a cassette player. This impacts my teaching by limiting my ability to include technology in the classroom.]

Narrator: Here is a sample contextual information textbox. This is representative of what we might see from candidates.

This is a fairly simple textbox, and it doesn’t seem to give the candidates much trouble.

On Screen: [Breaking Down the Steps

Step 1: Planning (an arrow points to this step)

Step 2: Implementing the Plan

Step 3: Understanding the Two Focus Students

Step 4: Reflecting]

Narrator: Now, let’s look at the four steps.

For step 1, the candidate will demonstrate knowledge of an effective lesson plan that facilitates student learning. The candidate needs to keep in mind that the planning step must incorporate ideas about the creation of a fifteen-minute video. The candidate must decide which parts of the lesson will be video recorded and keep in mind that the video can be divided into three segments.

On Screen: [Step 1: Planning

This step allows you to demonstrate your knowledge of an effective lesson plan that facilitates student learning.

Activity: Creating a Plan

Produce a standards-based lesson plan for your whole class that addresses learning needs, includes instructional strategies to engage students, and incorporates assessment techniques to gauge student learning. The lesson plan needs to provide baseline data from both the whole class and the two Focus Students, work examples from the Focus Students, and a fifteen-minute video. Before teaching the lesson, respond to the guiding prompts below.

Textbox 4.1.1: Goals and Student Background

Guiding Prompts:

  1. What learning goal(s) and standards (state and/or national) did you identify for the class? Explain how they are appropriate for the lesson and your students’ learning needs. (Two points to cover. One is descriptive writing, the second analytic.)
  2. What whole-class data did you use to establish a baseline to measure student growth? (One point to cover)
  3. How did your students' prior knowledge and background information influence your planning process? (Two points to cover)

Required artifacts for this textbox:

  • representative pages of your lesson plan (maximum of two pages)
  • representative pages of the baseline data (maximum of two pages)

An arrow points to the two bullets that says Attach two artifacts

A textbox is shown here with the heading: Type your response in the textbox below.]

Narrator: In order for the candidates to understand every part of what the task requests for submission, they are encouraged to highlight salient points of the task’s Activity and Guiding Prompts to help them become more informed about what that they need to consider before they choose a focus for this task. This highlighting is called a deep dive and should be done before anything else. This process will also give the candidates a rich understanding of the requirements of each guiding prompt, how many parts each prompt consists of, and what type of writing is needed to respond to the prompt.

Also, as candidates are writing their response, they are encouraged to label the parts of their response a, b, and c within the authoring system. It is not required, but it helps candidates recognize where guiding prompts are missing or need more evidence. It also helps to add clarity for a rater who is scoring the response and looking for evidence that the candidate addressed each of the guiding prompts.

Although having the candidates do the highlighting of the various parts of each guiding prompt as a discovery exercise to gain clarity; we have also provided that information in this deep dive in red type. Often, candidates will respond to one part of the prompt and miss other parts; so it is imperative that they recognize when a prompt has multiple parts.

Within each textbox, three types of writing are often required. In the textbox you are looking at now, two of those three types of writing are present: descriptive and analysis. The guiding prompts lead the candidate to make use of both types of writing. When responding to these prompts, it is important for the candidate to keep in mind that the amount of appropriate detail that the candidate supplies will have a direct impact on the score that is assigned.

On Screen:

Textbox: 4.1.1: Goals and Student Background

Guiding Prompts:

  1. What learning goal(s) and standards (state and/or national) did you identify for the class? Explain how they are appropriate for the lesson and your students’ learning needs. (Two points to cover. One is descriptive writing, the second analytic.)
  2. b. What whole-class data did you use to establish a baseline to measure student growth? (One point to cover)
  3. How did your students' prior knowledge and background information influence your planning process? (Two points to cover)

Required artifacts for this textbox:

  • representative pages of your lesson plan (maximum of two pages)
  • representative pages of the baseline data (maximum of two pages)

An arrow points to the two bullets that says Attach two artifacts

A textbox is shown here with the heading: Type your response in the textbox below.]

Narrator: So, let’s summarize what we have discussed so far. For all responses in this task, candidates need to keep three things in mind:

  1. the number of parts within a guiding prompt,
  2. the type of writing required, and
  3. the amount of detail that must be provided.

Now, let’s take a look at the content of textbox 4.1.1.

In guiding prompt a, the candidate must identify the learning goals and standards. What is really important here is the second part of the prompt. The candidate needs to explain how those goals and standards chosen are appropriate for both the lesson and the students’ learning needs. Responses that miss that connection between these two areas are scored at a lower level. The lesson plan artifact that the candidates must attached in this textbox should be referenced in the written commentary.

In guiding prompt b, the candidate needs to describe the data that was chosen and submitted as an artifact and talk about its use as a baseline and describe how it will be used to measure student growth. The data artifact that is attached needs to be referenced during this discussion.

In guiding prompt c, there are two areas required in this response. The candidate needs to make the connection between both students’ prior knowledge and background information and the planning process (for example, “In the previous unit, students studied part 1 of the topic.” and “Because many in the class are a bit talkative, I chose to start with whole-group instruction.”). Often, candidates analyze the impact of prior knowledge but miss the evidence regarding background information.

On Screen: [Textbox 4.1.2: Instructional Strategies

Guiding Prompts

  1. How do you plan to use academic content language to advance the understanding of the concept being taught in this lesson? Provide a rationale. (Two points to cover)
  2. How do you plan to engage students in critical thinking to promote student learning? Provide a rationale. (Two points to cover)
  3. How do you plan to use questioning skills to promote student learning? Provide a rationale. (Two points to cover)
  4. How do you plan to integrate literacy into the content you will teach to promote student learning? Provide a rationale. (Two points to cover)

A textbox is shown here with the heading: Type your response in the textbox below.]

Narrator: This is the second of three textboxes of the task requirements for Step 1.

You will note that the four prompts in textbox 4.1.2 are repeated later in textbox 4.2.1. In this textbox, the candidate must focus on the planning for the implementation of the instructional strategies. The implementation of the first three strategies will be viewed within the fifteen-minute video, and the candidate will analyze the effect of these instructional strategies on the lesson and on student learning.

Prompt a. This requires the candidate to plan for the use of academic content language: the use of the language to advance the understanding of the concept taught, and the rationale for the choice. For example, if this was a Math lesson, the candidate may use geometric terms such as vertex and right triangle.

For guiding prompt b. This requires a candidate to discuss the engagement of students in critical thinking as part of the lesson, with a focus on how the critical thinking will promote student learning. Again, a rationale must be a part of the response. A candidate may discuss preparation for a debate in social studies, for a science experiment in an elementary classroom, or for a particularly difficult passage from a piece of music.

For guiding prompt c. This requires a candidate to plan for the use of questioning skills. This also requires a rationale. The candidate may discuss how the beginning of a lesson will start with recall questions relating to a previous day’s work and then move on to higher-level questioning. The questions could be provided orally or as part of an activity that is the focus of part of the lesson.

Prompt d. This requires the candidate to plan for the inclusion of literacy in the lesson. This is the one instructional strategy that may not be seen in the video. A candidate, for example, could plan to read a short story to elementary students as background information on an upcoming science experiment, or assign a news article on a related topic to be read as a homework assignment for social studies.

On Screen: [Textbox: 4.1.3: Lesson Activity(ies)

Guiding Prompts

  1. Describe the activity or activities that is (are) the main focus of the lesson plan. Explain how you designed the activity(ies) to anticipate and address student learning needs. (Three points to cover)
  2. Describe how you will monitor student learning during the course of the lesson. (One point to cover)
  3. What student work samples will you require the students to submit as part of your assessment of student learning resulting from the lesson? (The work can be created either during or after the lesson.) How will these responses be integrated into the lesson plan? Provide a rationale for your choice of student work samples. (Three points)

A textbox is shown here with the heading: Type your response in the textbox below.]

Narrator: This is the third textbox of the task requirements for Step 1. In this textbox, the candidate must discuss the lesson’s activities, including a student work sample, that was an essential part of the plan.

For prompt a., the candidate is required to discuss the significant activity that is the focus of the lesson. This might be a series of scaffolded activities, or it may be one major activity that the classroom engages in. Part of the plan needs to discuss the associated learning needs of the students. The candidate must talk about anticipated needs and then state how those needs will be addressed. For example, a third grade math teacher might write about the previous difficulties students had with word problems, and so for the current lesson, she will approach the first two problems by reading the problem aloud and circling the key words and numbers involved and get feedback from students to see if they understand.

For guiding prompt b. The candidate must talk about different strategies used to monitor student learning during the class such as one-to-one conversation while students are in groups, quick writes from everyone to see if they are understanding, or the use of a quick thumbs up or thumbs down.

For guiding prompt c, the candidate must plan for the creation of student work that results from the lesson. The candidate needs to clearly state how this student work was integrated into the lesson and is not a simply add-on. For example, a candidate teaching music can have students perform individually and provide an annotated sheet of music noting the positives and negatives of the performance. An early childhood teacher may have students draw a picture related to the focused activity.

On Screen: [What are some problems or challenges that candidates may have with this Step?]

Narrator: Now, let’s stop for a minute and take a look at some of the challenges that candidates may have with this Step.

On Screen: [Task 4: Step 1 Planning

Textbox 4.1.1: Goals and Student Background

Candidates tend to include the data in their artifact but not discuss it. Citing details from the data contained in the artifact in the discussion is something that could provide further evidence.

Textbox 4.1.2 Instructional Strategies

Candidates usually mention the strategies but often leave out how the strategies will promote student learning.

Textbox 4.1.3 Lesson Activity(ies)

Candidates often do not provide much detail about the activity(ies); the activity is mentioned, but then the part about the addressing of anticipated learning needs is not developed.

Note: In all responses to the Textboxes, there is a tendency to forget to include rationales. Or if they are included, the rationales have little detail or fail to connect the topic to student learning.

Narrator: The planning part of this task is very important for the success of the response. Candidates should spend time making sure they choose lessons that will allow them to write about significant instructional strategies and activities. Candidates need to read the Step 2 prompts as well so that they can plan for monitoring, the giving of feedback, the use of verbal and nonverbal communication, and classroom-management strategies. For example, a candidate chooses a game such as Jeopardy as the main focus of the lesson. Often, because it is a review technique, the lesson leaves out evidence of such things as the use of critical thinking, the monitoring of learning, and the instructional decision making.

Also in this step, and all others, the inclusion of examples, plurals, and rationales, when required, must be addressed.

It is imperative that the candidate understands all the requirements of the entire task before choosing a lesson focus. That lesson needs to be robust enough to effectively fulfill all the requirements of every guiding prompt.

One final thought on Step 1. As the candidate plans, he or she needs to keep in mind that what is planned in Step 1 will become the basis of the fifteen-minute video. Decisions about the strategies and activities will have an effect on the resulting video. What parts of the lesson does the candidate want raters to see? Certainly, the plan could change during implementation, but the candidate still needs to give direction to the lesson in the planning stage

On Screen: [Breaking Down the Steps: Step 1: Planning; Step 2: Implementing the Plan (an arrow points to this step); Step 3: Understanding the Two Focus Students; Step 4: Reflecting]

Narrator: We have reviewed the planning requirements for this task. Now we will move on to the implementation of what was planned. Step 2 is divided into three parts. Candidates must describe and explain the instructional strategies they implemented; their interactions with the students and how they managed the classroom.

On Screen: [Step 2: Implementing the Plan

This step allows you to demonstrate your ability to implement a lesson plan, interact with your students, and analyze your practice.

Activity: Implementing the Plan

Teach the lesson based on the plan you described in Step 1, and provide a fifteen-minute video from that lesson. Then respond to the guiding prompts below.

Textbox 4.2.1: Instructional Strategies

Guiding Prompts

  1. How did you use academic content language to advance the understanding of the concept being taught in this lesson? Cite examples from the video to support your analysis. (Two points to cover)
  2. How did you engage students in critical thinking to promote student learning? Cite examples from the video to support your analysis. (Two points to cover)
  3. How did you use questioning skills to promote student learning? Cite examples from the video to support your analysis. (Two points to cover)
  4. How did you integrate literacy into the content you taught to promote student learning? Cite examples from the video to support your analysis. (Two points to cover)

A textbox is shown here with the heading: Type your response in the textbox below.]

Narrator: Once the candidate has video recorded the lesson, the Step 2 guiding prompts must be addressed. For textbox 4.2.1, the prompts are identical in nature to textbox 4.1.2. The candidate needs to watch the video several times to find the evidence that addresses each of these implementation prompts.

What happens in the video that shows the addressing of academic content language, critical thinking, and questioning skills MUST be discussed in the written commentary. If the literacy aspect is seen on the video, that too can be referenced.

On Screen: [Textbox 4.2.1: Instructional Strategies

Guiding Prompts

  1. How did you use academic content language to advance the understanding of the concept being taught in this lesson? Cite examples from the video to support your analysis. (Two points to cover)
  2. How did you engage students in critical thinking to promote student learning? Cite examples from the video to support your analysis. (Two points to cover)
  3. How did you use questioning skills to promote student learning? Cite examples from the video to support your analysis. (Two points to cover)
  4. How did you integrate literacy into the content you taught to promote student learning? Cite examples from the video to support your analysis. (Two points to cover)

A textbox is shown here with the heading: Type your response in the textbox below.]

Narrator: One key to the successful completion of a response to this step is the use of examples from the video. The candidate should come to a conclusion as to how each of these strategies was used and how they promoted student learning. The candidate should look for situations in the video that support his or her conclusions and then be prepared to reference them in the written commentary.

For example, a music teacher may include something similar to the following.

The lesson activities helped students to draw direct connections between musical terms such as rhythm, meter, and volume and literary and poetic elements. At minute 12:00, students were instructed to draw an artistic representation of the “feeling” of the song and to choose a corresponding mood word. Students were then asked to share their interpretations with the class. This discussion challenges students to carefully explain their choices and to substantiate their point of view with examples from the song.

References to literacy and how it promoted student learning can come from anywhere in the lesson, including the video, but the latter is not required.

On Screen: [Textbox 4.2.2: Interacting with the Students

Guiding Prompts

  1. How did you monitor student learning while teaching the lesson? In what ways did evidence of learning guide your instructional decision making while teaching the lesson? Cite examples from the video to support your analysis. (Three points to cover)
  2. How did you provide feedback to individuals and the whole class to advance student learning? Cite examples from the video to support your analysis. (Two points to cover)
  3. How you use verbal and nonverbal communication techniques to foster student learning? Cite examples from the video to support your analysis. (Two points to cover)

A textbox is shown here with the heading: Type your response in the textbox below.]

Narrator: The second part of Step 2 focuses on interactions with the students.

In Prompt a, the candidate must write about the ways in which he or she monitored student learning. For example, At what point were the students off target? At what point was learning evident? What are specific occurrences from the video that support the candidate’s conclusions? As a result of determining what learning was taking place, what instructional decisions were made? What are specific occurrences from the video that show this decision making?

For Prompt b, the candidate must provide examples of the feedback offered during the class and provide reason for that feedback.

In Prompt c, the candidate must show communication with students during the lesson to foster student learning. The techniques used need to be both verbal and nonverbal. The analysis must show how effective the communication was. This communication can be part of the content focus or the behavior focus.

On Screen: [Textbox 4.2.3: Classroom Management

Guiding Prompts

  1. What classroom-management strategies did you use during the lesson? Cite examples of the strategies from the video. (Two points to cover)
  2. b. In what ways did the strategies engage students and promote a positive learning environment? Cite examples from the video to support your analysis. (Three points to cover)

A textbox is shown here with the heading: Type your response in the textbox below.]

Narrator: The third part of Step 2 focuses on classroom management.

In Prompts a and b, there is a required discussion of various classroom-management strategies. As with the previous textbox, strategies can focus on the impact of the learning activities in engaging students and fostering a positive learning environment as well as addressing behavior.

On Screen: [What are some problems or challenges that candidates may have with this Step?]

Narrator: Now, let’s stop for a minute and take a look at some of the challenges that candidates may have with this Step.

On Screen: [Task 4: Step 2 Implementing the Plan

Textbox 4.2.1: Instructional Strategies

Candidates tend to omit detail when talking about the implementation of each strategy.

Textbox 4.2.2: Interacting with Students

Candidates often mention an example of verbal and an example of nonverbal communication, but there are more examples on the video that can be discussed, showing a variety of communication methods.

Textbox 4.2.3: Classroom Management

Because the word is plural, the candidate needs to provide more than one strategy. Candidates often mention one classroom-management strategy. Candidates frequently talk about a strategy but do not tell how that strategy promoted a positive classroom environment.

Note: For all responses to each of the textboxes, there is a tendency to forget the inclusion of examples from the video. Or if there, the examples have little detail or fail to connect the topic to student learning.]

Narrator: One mistake candidates make is not citing examples from the video or not citing a sufficient number of examples. Candidates need to keep in mind that a rater is trained to see the connection between the written commentary and the video. Raters do not just view the video and treat it as if it were an observation. Raters need to see that candidates can clearly articulate their practice using descriptive, analytic, and reflective writing supported with examples. Raters do not make inferences; they go by what the candidate tells them.

The sample problem that appeared with rationales in Step 1 appears in this step with examples. The more support candidates can provide through the use of examples, the stronger the response, as long as the connection between the examples and the point being made is clear.

So, in closing this step‘s review, detail, connections, and examples are the key words to a good response.

On Screen: [Breaking Down the Steps: Step 1: Planning; Step 2: Implementing the Plan; Step 3: Understanding the Two Focus Students (an arrow points to this step); Step 4: Reflecting

Narrator: Step 3’s focus is for candidates to provide evidence of planning for two focus students who reflect different learning needs. Candidates are required to use data to establish a baseline to measure each student’s growth and explain how they will collect evidence that shows the progress each student made toward the learning goal.

On Screen: [Step 3: Understanding the Two Focus Students

This step allows you to provide evidence of planning for the learning of two Focus Students.

Activity: Collecting Student Work

Choose two Focus Students who reflect different learning needs based on the goal(s) of the lesson. Plan to collect evidence of learning as seen in the baseline data and the student work samples. Then respond to the guiding prompts below.

Textbox: 4.3.1: Understanding the Two Focus Students

Guiding Prompts

Focus Student 1

  1. Identify Focus Student 1’s learning strengths and challenges. (Two points to cover)
  2. What data did you use to establish a baseline to measure this student’s growth? (One point to cover)
  3. What evidence will you collect to show his or her progress toward the learning goal(s)? (One point to cover)

Focus Student 2

  1. Identify Focus Student 2’s learning strengths and challenges. (Two points to cover)
  2. What data did you use to establish a baseline to measure this student’s growth? (One point to cover)
  3. What evidence will you collect to show his or her progress toward the learning goal(s)? (One point to cover)

Required artifacts for this textbox:

  • the baseline data for Focus Student 1 (maximum of one page).
  • the baseline data for Focus Student 2 (maximum of one page).

An arrow is pointing to the two bullets that says Attach two artifacts.

A textbox is shown here with the heading: Type your response in the textbox below.]

Narrator: For Step 3, the candidate must choose two students who reflect different learning needs that relate to the goals of the lesson. There are two required artifacts for Step 3. The baseline data for each student must be attached to this textbox.

On Screen: [Textbox: 4.3.1: Understanding the Two Focus Students

Guiding Prompts

Focus Student 1

  1. Identify Focus Student 1’s learning strengths and challenges. (Two points to cover)
  2. What data did you use to establish a baseline to measure this student’s growth? (One point to cover)
  3. What evidence will you collect to show his or her progress toward the learning goal(s)? (One point to cover)

Focus Student 2

  1. Identify Focus Student 2’s learning strengths and challenges. (Two points to cover)
  2. What data did you use to establish a baseline to measure this student’s growth? (One point to cover)
  3. What evidence will you collect to show his or her progress toward the learning goal(s)? (One point to cover)

Required artifacts for this textbox:

  • the baseline data for Focus Student 1 (maximum of one page).
  • the baseline data for Focus Student 2 (maximum of one page).

An arrow is pointing to the two bullets that says Attach two artifacts.

A textbox is shown here with the heading: Type your response in the textbox below.]

Narrator: For prompt a, the candidate must write about both the student’s learning strengths and the challenges. The candidate must show how these strengths and challenges relate to the learning that is taking place during the Task 4 lesson.

For prompt b, the candidate must collect data that serves as a baseline for the candidate’s evaluation of the students’ strengths and challenges.

And for prompt c, this third prompt asks the candidate to determine what evidence will be collected to show student growth. There needs to be a comparison between the baseline data and the evidence to be collected. Growth does not have be present in all areas. The candidate will need to be prepared to discuss the amount of progress in textbox 4.4.2.

On Screen: [What are some problems or challenges that candidates may have with this Step?]

Narrator: Now, let’s stop for a minute and take a look at some of the challenges that candidates may have with this Step.

On Screen: [Task 4, Step 3: Understanding the Two Focus Students

Textbox 4.3.1: Understanding the Two Focus Students

Candidates often choose two students who are very similar.

Candidates often do not provide enough discussion of both strengths and challenges related to the lesson’s focus.

Candidates tend to include the data in their attached artifact but not discuss it in the written commentary. Citing details from the data in the discussion is something that could provide further evidence.

Sometimes the data submitted does not provide clear evidence connected to each Focus Student.

Sometimes candidates provide more discussion on one Focus Student over another.]

Narrator: First, many candidates do not choose focus students who represent different strengths and challenges. By discussing two different students, the candidate can provide evidence of a greater variety of analysis and of different methods that can be used with these students to get them to learn. In other words, a candidate can show a greater span of a teaching repertoire.

Second, candidates who submit weaker responses tend to provide minimal detail regarding each student’s strengths and challenges. Notice, again, the prompt uses the plural forms: strengths and challenges. The more detail, the more knowledge of students the candidate can show, the stronger the response. Keep in mind that the candidate returns to these focus students in the last textbox. The more detail that is here, the more connections can be made in textbox 4.4.2.

On Screen: [Breaking Down the Steps: Step 1: Planning; Step 2: Implementing the Plan; Step 3: Understanding the Two Focus Students; Step 4: Reflecting (an arrow points to this step)]

Narrator: Step 4’s focus is for candidates to reflect on the effectiveness of their lesson for the entire class and the two focus students. There are two textboxes in Step 4.

On Screen: [Step 4: Reflecting

This step allows you to reflect on the effectiveness of your lesson for the entire class and the two Focus Students.

Activity: Reflecting on the Whole Class

Think about your lesson plan, the implementation of the lesson, and the student work. Then respond to the guiding prompts below.

Textbox 4.4.1: Reflection on the Whole Class

Guiding Prompts

  1. To what extent did your students reach the learning goal(s)? Cite examples from the lesson and/or the video that supports your reflection. (Two points to cover)
  2. Reflect on your instructional strategies, interactions with students, and classroom-management strategies. Discuss what went well and what areas you need to revise. Cite examples from the video that support your conclusions. (Six points to cover)
  3. Describe revisions that you could make if you were to teach this lesson again. Why would you make each revision? Cite examples from the lesson plan, the video, and/or the student work that would prompt the revisions. (Three points to cover)

A textbox is shown here with the heading: Type your response in the textbox below.]

Narrator: The first textbox of Step 4, 4.4.1, asks the candidate to reflect on the whole class.

Prompt a. The candidate must provide an analysis of the extent to which the students within the whole class met the learning goals.

In Prompt b. The candidate must reflect on what went well and on what areas could be revised. The reflection is based on an analysis of the instructional strategies, interactions with students, and classroom management. The candidate needs to go back to Step 2 and review all the evidence that is there and then reflect on the future. Examples from the video are needed here.

Prompt c. The candidate must determine what revisions would be made to the current lesson plan, if the lesson were to be retaught. A rationale for each conclusion is needed.

On Screen: [Textbox: 4.4.2: Reflection on the Two Focus Students

Guiding Prompts

  1. Based on the baseline data and student work samples, to what extent did each of the two Focus Students achieve the learning goal(s) of the lesson? (Four points to cover)
  2. How will your analysis of the baseline data and student work samples guide planning for future lessons for each of the two Focus Students. (Two points to cover)

The required artifacts for this textbox:

  • a representative work sample for Focus Student 1 (maximum of two pages).
  • a representative work sample for Focus Student 2 (maximum of two pages).

A textbox is shown here with the heading: Type your response in the textbox below.

An arrow is pointing to the two bullets that says Attach two artifacts.]

Narrator: The second part of Step 4, 4.4.2, candidates must reflect on the two focus students.

In Prompt a, the candidate must analyze the baseline data and student work from each focus student. Based on this evidence, the candidate must determine to what extent learning has taken place?

For Prompt b, the candidate reflects on the same data and student work in order to guide future lessons for these two focus students.

Candidates are allowed to submit no more than two pages of work samples for each focus student for Step 4. The purpose of these artifacts is for candidates to refer to them when they are reflecting on what learning took place and how they would plan future lessons for these two focus students.

On Screen: [What are some problems or challenges that candidates may have with this Step?]

Narrator: Now, let’s stop for a minute and take a look at some of the challenges that candidates may have with this Step.

On Screen: [Task 4: Step 4 Reflecting

Textbox 4.4.1: Reflection on the Whole Class

Candidates tend to respond globally to areas for revision. References to specifics such as decision making during teaching and feedback need to be considered.

Textbox 4.4.2: Reflection on the Two Focus Students

Candidates often miss using specific and clear examples, especially from the student work. Candidates often spend more time discussing one Focus Student instead of both.]

Narrator: Candidates often repeat what has already been stated instead of using details to show the extent of the students reaching the learning goals.

References to specifics such as instructional strategies, interactions with students, and classroom management strategies need to be discussed. Candidates tend to respond globally to areas for revision. Candidates often omit examples, especially from the video, that support the analysis and reflection.

Candidates often dismiss prompt b with a statement like, "Everything went well." Even if things did go well, there is always an opportunity to revise what was done to make the lesson even better. Notice the prompt is also asking the candidate to explain and use examples to support the conclusion that all went well.

Candidates often discuss revisions that are global in nature, such as "I need to add more activities" instead of "I should have had the students do a think-pair-share activity before moving on so that I could have an idea of how much they understood."

Overall, the biggest problem is that candidates do not provide specific examples, especially from the video, to support their analysis and reflection.

On Screen: [Breaking Down the Steps

Step 5: Uploading the Video (an arrow points to this step)]

Narrator: Step 5 does not receive a score. Its’ purpose is for candidates to properly upload the required video.

On Screen: [Step 5: Uploading the Video

Activity: Upload a fifteen-minute video from your lesson.

Upload a fifteen-minute video. The video may contain one fifteen-minute segment (unedited) or three five-minute segments (each unedited) combined into one file. Only one video file may be uploaded.

A textbox is shown here with the heading: Upload your video here.]

Narrator: There are specific instructions for uploading the video. These can be found in the Submission System User Guide along with other technical advice for working with the artifacts. There is also a customer service number that will enable candidates to receive helpful advice when encountering any technical problems.

Candidates need to make sure they allow enough time for the video upload process. This process could take 30 minutes. Candidates often run into issues with this step because the file is too large, not an accepted file type, or they have a slow internet connection.

In the past there have been candidates who waited until the very last moment to enter their written commentary, their artifacts, and/or their video.

Candidates who work on the task entry close to the 2 pm ET deadline are at risk for running out of time and not being able to submit the task. After 2:00 pm ET, the system no longer allows edits or task submission.

We urge all candidates to avoid this situation by entering all of their response well before the deadline.

Video-editing software may be needed to get the file ready for upload. There are a number of free video editing software programs available on the Internet. When searching for software online, make sure you find the official manufacturer’s website to download the software. See the Video section of the Submission System User Guide (PDF) for links to video-editing software.

On Screen: [Submission System User Guide

An image of the cover of the submission system user guide is displayed.]

Narrator: The candidate should review the video before submitting the task to make sure the video can be viewed and that the sound is working. We have had instances where the video file uploads successfully, but there is no sound. So it’s important that candidates review the uploaded video. If the video file is too large, is not the correct file type, or is corrupted in any way, candidates will receive errors when going through this process. If they are unable to resolve video upload errors, candidates should call our Customer Service team for assistance before submitting the task.

Also, if the character count is over the maximum for the task, the candidate will need time to determine where to make edits to reduce the character count.

When the response is over the maximum character count for the task, the response cannot be saved. Upon attempting to save, the candidate will receive a message indicating the total character count they have used for the task out of the maximum permitted. They must edit the textbox responses to bring the character count below the maximum in order to save and submit the task. Candidates need to allow time for addressing this type of issue when working in the system. This is not something that candidates want to encounter an hour before the task deadline.

On Screen: [Resources]

Narrator: Just a quick reminder of some available resources

On Screen: [Candidate and Educator Handbook

Screen shot of Table of Contents]

www.ets.org/s/ppa/pdf/ppat-candidate-educator-handbook.pdf

Narrator: We have prepared a Candidate and Educator Handbook that covers the information shown above. Much of what we have shared about the tasks, rubrics, and artifacts are in the handbook.

It is paramount that every PPAT preservice candidate reads the handbook before he or she starts on the first task. This resource documents all the basic information about the assessment and the tasks and will help ensure that candidates are prepared to begin.

On Screen: [Screen shot from Test Taker section of the PPAT assessment website

Website

· General Information: www.ets.org/ppa/test-takers/teachers/about

· Tasks and Rubrics: www.ets.org/ppa/test-takers/teachers/build-submit/requirements

· Ancillary Materials (Glossary, Lesson Plan Format, etc.): www.ets.org/ppa/test-takers/teachers/build-submit/ancillary-materials/

· Frequently Asked Questions (F A Qs): www.ets.org/ppa/test-takers/teachers/faq/ ]

Narrator: ETS maintains a website about this performance assessment. Here, I have included the links to important information.