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Markku (Mark) T. Hakkinen

Markku (Mark) Hakkinen is a director of digital accessibility in the Research & Development division at ETS. He utilizes his expertise in accessibility standards and assistive technologies in developing computer-based assessments that support test takers with disabilities. His research at ETS has included projects exploring accessibility challenges of tablet computers, gaming technologies, haptics, and sonification. During his career, he has placed significant focus on nonvisual interfaces to information, from early research in speech-based warning systems to development and commercialization of an audio web browser and technology for audio eBooks. He earned a Ph.D. and an M.S. in cognitive science from the University of Jyväskylä in Finland and a B.S. in psychology from Washington University.

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