Frédéric Robin is a psychometric director at ETS. He earned his Ed.D. in research and evaluation methods from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst in 2001, his M.S. in operations research from North Carolina State University in 1993, and his ingénieur degree from the National Institute of Applied Sciences in Lyon, France, in 1984. Through more than 20 years of experience at ETS, he has developed extensive expertise in assessment design and psychometric research. He has developed methodologies and software that have contributed to automated test assembly, computerized adaptive testing and multistage adaptive testing, as well as various tools to study and evaluate model fit (including differential item functioning (DIF), item fit, and person fit), calibration, scoring, linking, and equating. Currently he focuses on the design and analysis of international large-scale surveys such as PISA and PIAAC.