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Constructed-Response (CR) Differential Item Functioning (DIF) Evaluations for TOEIC Speaking and Writing Tests

Moses, Tim P.
Publication Year:
Powers, Donald E. (ed.) The Research Foundation for the TOEIC Tests: A Compendium of Studies: Volume II. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, Sep 2013, p10.1-10.19
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Constructed Response Items Differential Item Functioning (DIF) English as a Foreign Language (EFL) English as a Second Language (ESL) English Language Assessment (ELA) English Language Proficiency English Language Skills Speaking Skills Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) Test-Taker Performance Writing Skills


SUMMARY: Differential item functioning (DIF) is a statistical procedure used to identify items or tasks that are unexpectedly biased in some way, inappropriately favoring one group of test takers over another. One of the challenges for speaking and writing tests is the lack of proven, practical DIF techniques that can be used to analyze performance-based or "constructed-response" tests. This paper investigates several such techniques and illustrates how research is being conducted to ensure the fairness of score interpretations.

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