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Constructed-Response (CR) Differential Item Functioning (DIF) Evaluations for TOEIC Speaking and Writing Tests DIF CR ELA TOEIC ESL EFL

Moses, Tim P.
Publication Year:
Powers, Donald E. (ed.) The Research Foundation for the TOEIC Tests: A Compendium of Studies: Volume II. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, Sep 2013, p10.1-10.19
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Constructed Response Items, English Language Proficiency, English Language Assessment (ELA), Differential Item Functioning (DIF), Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC), Speaking Skills, Writing Skills, English Language Skills, English as a Foreign Language (EFL), English as a Second Language (ESL), Test-Taker Performance


SUMMARY: Differential item functioning (DIF) is a statistical procedure used to identify items or tasks that are unexpectedly biased in some way, inappropriately favoring one group of test takers over another. One of the challenges for speaking and writing tests is the lack of proven, practical DIF techniques that can be used to analyze performance-based or "constructed-response" tests. This paper investigates several such techniques and illustrates how research is being conducted to ensure the fairness of score interpretations.

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