Systems and methods are provided for automatically scoring a constructed response. The constructed response is processed to generate a plurality of numerical vectors that is representative of the constructed response. A model is applied to the plurality of numerical vectors. The model includes an input layer configured to receive the plurality of numerical vectors, the input layer being connected to a following layer of the model via a first plurality of connections. Each of the connections has a first weight. An intermediate layer of nodes is configured to receive inputs from an immediately-preceding layer of the model via a second plurality of connections, each of the connections having a second weight. An output layer is connected to the intermediate layer via a third plurality of connections, each of the connections having a third weight. The output layer is configured to generate a score for the constructed response.