This research was concerned with the relationship between the individual's level of aspiration in regard to performance on cognitive tasks, and self-perceptions and desires with respect to various personality traits. Results indicated that the level of aspiration on the cognitive tasks was not related to over-all self-criticalness, or dissatisfaction with self. However, high aspiration level tended to be associated somewhat with a relatively favorable self-appraisal on a cluster of ability traits, and with the desire to attain a more favorable status even when present status is reported as already being very high. Individuals showing the two characteristics just mentioned tended not only to set high aspirations on the cognitive tasks, but also to adjust their aspirations from trial to trial with little regard to preceding upward or downward shifts in performance. The results suggest that several of the measures under study may reflect the intensity of the individual's desire to approximate the ideal self even when the present self-image is highly favorable.