Although there are fundamental differences in the objectives of the two activities, the programming of instructional material bears many similarities to the construction of tests. A systematic comparison of problems and procedures reveals important implications for programming from the older field of testing. Theory and experience in test construction can be especially useful in the selection of valid criteria for assessing the effectiveness of a program, the ordering of instructional subject matter, the writing of instructional frames, and the formal evaluation of the program. Adaptive programming implies measurement of both aptitude and achievement in order to assign trainees to appropriate individual sequences of instruction. Possible applications resulting from examination of these and other issues are explored, and necessary further research is suggested.