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Set Scores and Forced-Choice Tests

Hofstee, William K. B.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Bulletin
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Netherlands Organization for the Advancement of Pure Research, Adjectives, Forced Choice Technique, Intelligence Tests, Personality Measures, Response Style (Tests), Social Desirability


Forced-choice adjective checklists of heterogeneous content, together with an intelligence test and personality questionnaire scales, were administered to samples of 448 Dutch naval and 815 army recruits. Ratings of these subjects by superiors were obtained at the end of the basic military training period. The forced-choice tests, scored for unpopular responses, correlated significantly with the ratings in both samples; the same was true for the intelligence measure, but not for the questionnaire scales. It was concluded that desirability sets, which influence forced-choice test response, are related to nontest behavior; and it was suggested that the forced-choice format may derive its relative effectiveness from its sensitivity to such tendencies.

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