Programmed instruction has recently been hailed as an aid to solving, if not a panacea for, the educational problems of the developing countries. The project described in the present report attempted to explore the use of programmed instruction in Israel for raising the level of scholastic achievement. Mathematics programs were specially constructed for fifth-grade "culturally deprived" students and ninth-grade vocational high school students. A U.S. mathematics program was translated into Hebrew for sixth-grade students. Evaluative studies of each program showed that program-taught classes learned more than classes using conventional textbooks. The implications for improving instruction in Israel and other developing countries are discussed.