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Individual Variation in Cognitive Processes NICHD

Bloxom, Anne L.; Kagan, Jerome; Kogan, Nathan; Yando, Regina.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Memorandum
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Carnegie Corporation, National Institute for Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institute of Mental Health, Cognitive Processes, Cognitive Style, Individual Differences, Psychological Characteristics, Theories


The traditional insularity among the complementary processes of thought, motivation, and behavior is being overcome and it is necessary to invent concepts that reflect the new relations among these processes. The introduction of the concepts of field independence, reflection-impulsivity, leveling-sharpening, automatization, and creativity reflects an initial attempt to provide structure to the reliable variability that is characteristic of cognitive functioning among humans. The theoretical substance of these concepts typically implies that a blend of biological and motivational variables is responsible for the public phenomena. The vigorous and systematic study of variability in cognitive products represents a return to an interesting topic rather than a new frontier.

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