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A Regression Model for Studying Growth (Growth Study Paper No. 34)

Linn, Robert L.; Werts, Charles E.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Bulletin
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Office of Education, Cognitive Measurement, Correlation, Mathematical Formulas, Measurement Techniques, Regression (Statistics), Statistics, A Study of Academic Prediction and Growth


The determinants of change are assumed to be represented by a linear regression model. The implications of using raw difference scores and of using residual change scores are evaluated within the framework of this model. Given the regression model and a determinant of change (Z) other than initial status (X) , use of the above traditional measures of change results in biased estimates of the influence of Z on change when X and Z are correlated. Parallel results are obtained when the measures are treated as error free and when they are treated as fallible.

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