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The Prediction of Spelling Difficulty: I. A Review of the Literature and a Preliminary Statement of a Model to Predict Spelling Difficulty NICHD

Cahen, Leonard S.; Craun, Marlys J.; Johnson, Susan K.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Bulletin
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
National Institute for Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), Error Analysis (Language), Language Research, Literature Reviews, Models, Predictor Variables, Spelling, Word Lists


A review of the literature has led to the first phase of a model to predict spelling difficulty from stimulus properties of words and various cultural and psychological aspects of language. The model does not incorporate dimensions of individual differences among learners or methods of instruction. A tentative list of 23 predictor variables to be used in the model has been compiled.

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