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Trait-Treatment Interactions and Learning NICHD

Berliner, David C.; Cahen, Leonard S.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Bulletin
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
National Institute for Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), Behavioral Science Research, Interaction, Learning Theories, Teaching Methods


A review and discussion of issues related to interactions among independent variables and their effect on dependent variables in learning situations is provided. This type of research on instruction is called "Trait-Treatment Interaction (TTI)." Ordinal and disordinal interaction are explained, as is the background of TTI research. Methodological and conceptual problems are discussed. A review of research covers: 1) inductive-deductive treatments; 2) structures and unstructured treatments; 3) subject matter treatments; 4) concept learning treatments; 5) treatments involving mathamagenic or questioning activities; and 6) treatments involving programed instruction. Trait-trait interactions are explained and reviews of the literature described as are interaction of personality variables, interaction of activity variables, interaction of status variables, and interactions as they affect assessment. (SGK) (76pp.)

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