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A Cook's Guide to Development

Van den Daele, Leland D.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Memorandum
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Developmental Analysis, Developmental Psychology, Epistemology, Philosophy, Systems Analysis


Development as "occurrence of new characteristics," implying qualitative change, is discussed by analogy to cooking, a change in the state of food. The making of applesauce is described step-by-step in terms of changes achieved--an algorithm of selection (apples), boundaries (no other ingredients), and a system condition (heat), were applied. The concept of derivable transformation, hierarchical relation, subordination, and emergence are illustrated by example of making crepes from eggs, flour and milk and recovering eggs, flour and milk from crepes. The concepts of substitution, partially-derivable transformation and non-derivable transformation, are illustrated by example of trying to make a cheese omelet and applesauce from the same ingredients. Similarly, "open and closed systems" are explained by analogy to availability of limited or limitless ingredients and "necessity" and "sufficiency" by necessity and sufficiency of ingredients and processes to "cook a goose." "Addition," "deletion," and "substitution" are likewise explained by analogy to ingredients. Analogy is then made from cooks to behavioral psychologists, who are also agents of change, transformation, and development.

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