The major purpose of this study was to describe the status and professional development of a sample of female doctorates and to compare them to a sample of male doctorates who have attained the same educational status in terms of field of study, institution of degree, and year of graduation. The study looked at the extent and the ways that women in the sample used their Ph.D. or Ed.D. training; how the women compared to men in the sample in regards to income, productivity and career satisfaction; and the kinds of employment barriers and domestic handicaps the women faced. Sex differences were also analyzed and discussed for five subject fields: humanities, social sciences, biological sciences, physical sciences, and education. Data were gathered from 3,658 doctorates who graduated in 1950, 1960, or 1968 and who responded to the study questionnaire. The results of the survey indicated that women were far less likely to attend graduate school and once having acquired the doctorate were less likely to receive the rewards which their male colleagues enjoy.