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Multivariate Matching Methods That Are Equal Percent Bias Reducing,II: Maximums on Bias Reduction for Fixed Sample Sizes

Rubin, Donald B.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Bulletin
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Bias, Computer Software, Mathematical Models, Sampling, Statistical Analysis


Matched sampling is a method of data collection designed to reduce bias and variability due to specific matching variables. Although often used to control for bias in studies in which randomization is practically impossible, there is virtually no statistical literature devoted to investigating the ability of matched sampling to control bias in the common case of many matching variables. An obvious problem in studying the multivariate matching situation is the variety of sampling plans, underlying distributions, and intuitively reasonable matching methods. This article considers one class of multivariate matching methods which yield the same percent reduction in expected bias for each of the matching variables. The primary result is the derivation of the expression for the maximum attainable percent reduction in bias given fixed distributions and fixed sample sizes. An examination of trends in this maximum leads to a procedure for estimating minimum ratios of sample sizes needed to obtain well-matched samples. (28pp.)

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